REPORT476AUGUST2016Recommendations for enhancementsto well control training, examinationand certificationcompetentenhance
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REPORT476Recommendations forenhancements to wellcontrol training, examinationand certificationRevision historyVERSIONDATEAMENDMENTS1.0October 2012First release1.1August 2014Minor correction (typo)2.0August 2016Full revisionAUGUST2016
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training4ContentsForeword61. Scope72. Objectives of well control training83. Well control training key topics94. General recommendations for well control training104.1 Operation type, environment and equipment104.2 Topics for emphasis in well control training114.2.1 Monitoring, detection, and response114.2.2 Risk awareness and risk management124.2.3 Procedures and procedural discipline134.2.4 Barrier management135. Well control learning methods155.1 Role-specific well control training155.2 Scenario-based training events155.3 Continuous learning in the workplace176. Role-Specific Training levels18Level 1 – All Personnel Training20Level 2 – Operations Team Personnel Training21Level 3 – Equipment Operator training22Level 4 – Supervisor training24Level 5 – Engineer and Approving Authority training257. Well control training for specialized operations27
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training58. Assuring the quality of well control training288.1 Quality of Training Programme288.2 Teaching, trainers and assessors288.3 Updating training materials and methodology298.4 Certification of individuals298.5 Repeat well control training308.6 Quality assurance audit of well control training programmes31Appendix A. Managing risks, progression and dispensation32A.1 Managing the risks32A.2 Progression32A.3 Dispensation34Appendix B. Background on Well Operations CrewResource Management35Appendix C. Level 5 Engineer & Approving Authority37Appendix D. Bow tie methodology39
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training6ForewordThe E&P industry must strive to consistently improve well control competency ofpersonnel involved with all oil and gas well operations throughout the world, andthis should be actively overseen by those who accept the risks associated with wellcontrol events. The industry has a focus on process safety and for well operationsinvolving drilling, completion and well intervention, process safety means wellcontrol.The second edition of Report 476 provides recommendations for improvements tocurrent well control training, examination and certification processes.In this second edition, particular emphasis has been placed on:a) the scope: well drilling, completion and intervention throughout life cycleup to and including abandonment. Support services with well controlresponsibilities are also includedb) detection and immediate response to minimize well influxes or well integrityfailure with the ultimate objective of minimizing uncontrolled hydrocarbonreleasec)training concerning risk awareness and risk management specific tomaintaining well controld) well control training is recommended to be tailored specifically to roles andresponsibilities. Well control training for support services should be tailoredto meet their function in respect to their well control responsibilitiese) role-specific Levels 1–5 training is clarified. Examples are set out in476chart, Well Control Training – Levels Guidance Chart, which is published atthe same time as this reportf)methodology for formal assessment is clarifiedg) certification records recommended to be kept by training providers andaccreditation bodies where applicableh) level progression and the dispensation guidance are giveni)elements of Human Factors/Crew Resource Management/Non-Technicalskills being introduced within well control trainingj)prescriptive examples of syllabuses for both standard and specializedcourses from the first edition were removed because role-appropriatesyllabuses are being developed by industry parties.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training71. ScopeThis report provides recommended enhancements to existing industry well controltraining, examination and certification processes, as well as related philosophiesthat should be considered for adoption throughout the industry to improve wellcontrol preparedness and performance.The content of this report applies to all types of onshore and offshore well controloperations worldwide. Its recommendations are applicable to the personnel whoplan and execute well work at any stage of a well’s life cycle.Issues specifically addressed include: well design design of activities on wells well construction (drilling and completion) well intervention, wellhead maintenance or work-over plugging, suspending and abandoning wells.The focus of this effort excludes production-related work.This report is supported by 476chart, Well Control Training – Levels Guidance Chart.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training82. Objectives of well controltrainingThe foundations of well control training are prevention, detection and managementof well control incidents with the ultimate objective of avoiding uncontrolledrelease of hydrocarbons danger to life, the environment and company reputation.Well control training should enable participants to receive and develop rolespecific well control knowledge and to learn and practice well control skills.Upon completion of training they should be able to execute their well controlresponsibilities. Overall as a result of effective well control training risks of wellcontrol incidents and associated consequences should be minimized.Well control responsibilities address, but are not limited to: recognizing the importance of appropriate well design for well control safety explaining how well integrity is maintained recognizing deviations from approved design identifying the well control risks associated with the tasks assessing the suitability of risk mitigations identifying risks, limitations and proper actions for all operations per rolespecific responsibilities recognizing limitations of equipment, according to role specific responsibility. responding effectively when primary and/or secondary barriers fail maintaining primary well control and contributing to secondary well controloperations explaining how to bring the well back under control and to normalize thesituation.The industry aim is to ensure that suitable training is available and that this trainingis administered, delivered and assessed to an industry-recognized standard.Well control training should strive to ensure that the following learning outcomesare emphasized: a common understanding of problem areas and solutions related to wellcontrol management the knowledge of well control responsibilities of personnel relevant to theirfunction the focus on well control risks and contingency planning during well designand operations the importance of well integrity throughout well life cycle.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training93. Well control training key topicsAn individual’s role will determine the emphasis required for each training Key Topic.Individuals should learn what is relevant to their role and responsibilities. Learningcontent should support the individuals in achieving their well control assuranceresponsibilities.Well Control Training Key Topics include:1)Why do we need well control training?2)risk awareness and risk management(risk identification, assessment, analysis,mitigation), Management of Change (MOC),and contingency planning3)well control risks at each stage of the welllife cycle4)well control at each stage of the well life cycle5)learnings from the past well control incidents,examples for every stage of the well life cycle6)pressure: pore pressure (also known asformation pressure), fracture pressure,hydrostatic pressure, sub-normal pressures,over-pressures, surface pressures,circulating pressures, etc.7)well design and barrier design concepts,together with the corresponding calculations,including primary, secondary, tertiary barrierenvelopes, barrier identification and barriermanagement8)the primary barrier envelope components andtheir function (e.g. hydrostatic head, wellheadseals, stuffing box seals)9)well construction and intervention – assuringintegrity (e.g. fluids, cement, barriermanagement, monitoring, testing)10) fluids in wells – behaviours andcharacteristics (e.g. solubility, composition,temperature effects, compression, expansion)of gases and liquids including drilling fluids,completion fluids and work-over fluids11) primary well control operations of monitoring,detection, interpretation, analysis andresponse12) drills: empowerment and duty, includingpractical exercises13) detection of indicators of changing conditionsthat may lead to loss of well control or loss ofwell integrity14) equipment function and limitations that canaffect Well Control Assurance during thespan of the entire well life cycle, e.g. BOPequipment15) controlling anomalous behaviour such as afluid influx or loss within the wellbore withdefined well shut-in and securing procedures16) well control response methods andprocedures to return the situation to normal,deciding on specific methods of well kill(e.g. reverse circulation and forwardcirculation, wait and weight and driller’smethod, volumetric, lubricate and bleed,combined volumetric stripping, bullhead) toinclude both management and calculations17) completely regain the integrity of the wellbarrier and return safely to continue theoperation on the well with primary well control18) as appropriate Human Factors/CrewResource Management/Non-Technical Skills
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training104. General recommendationsfor well control training4.1Operation type, environment and equipmentComplexities of well control can differ significantly between the nature of theoperations being performed, the environment the activity is in, the type andlocation of the rig or of the intervention unit.Typical operations are:1)Drilling with bottom-supported offshore installations and land-basedinstallations that utilize surface well control equipment2)Drilling with floating rig operations utilizing subsea well control equipment.Differences in well control challenges should be identified for the followingenvironments: water depth varying in comparison from shallow to much deeper moored drilling rigs versus dynamically positioned drilling rigs3)Intervention, working predominantly on live wells (i.e., pressured wellfluids at surface). Entering an existing wellbore for remedial, suspensionand/or abandonment purposes. This can include activities of wire-line,coiled tubing, snubbing, well maintenance and completion, suspension andabandonment. Activities could be carried out in various locations: land,shallow or deep water as rig/vessel supported or may be stand-alone.Drilling is intended to include the construction of a new wellbore and/orsidetrack, and subsequent operations such as well testing, completion andwork-over operations until a well is handed over, suspended or abandoned.There should be adequate training coverage, as appropriate for the role, to ensurethese programmes are designed and executed in an appropriate manner. This isto ensure well integrity is assured both during and after the conclusion of theseoperations.Suspension, completion, work-over and abandonment operations should becovered in both drilling and intervention training categories.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training4.211Topics for emphasis in well control trainingTopics that need emphasis in well control training programmes are noted here.It is recommended that these topics will be fully integrated into the trainingprogrammes, allowing real-life examples to illustrate good practice and also whatcan go wrong.4.2.1 Monitoring, detection, and responseTraining should have a strong focus on the importance of maintaining well barrierintegrity as a key avoidance measure and for significantly reducing the severity ofa well control event. Maintaining well barrier integrity necessitates learners haveknowledge and skills with respect to best practices concerning well monitoring,detection of anomalous wellbore behaviour and response.Training should include the discussion of the well control management plan forevery stage of the operation, ensuring that roles and responsibilities are clearlydefined.Lessons learned from past incidents should be used to illustrate best practice foreach stage of monitoring, detection and response.Monitoring should address barriers and all of the aspects of operations that canimpact well control assurance.Training with respect to monitoring should include as a minimum: monitoring the well parameters to identify possible anomalies for early kickdetection and achieving safe, rapid and effective ‘shut-in’ during well intervention operations on a well that is under pressure thenmonitoring is expected to occur for signs of failure of pressure controlequipment (surface and subsea, as applicable) monitoring of well behaviours to stay within the predetermined operatingenvelope is required for all operations monitoring is expected to occur on all operations on wells for example ondead wells and live wells. (Dead wells could be reworked to reinvigorateand make live again: the Operations Team should be alert and prepared forchange in well health) monitoring for signs of failure of sub-surface pressure control equipmentduring well intervention operations on a live well, e.g. deep set or shallow setplugs, or down-hole valves monitoring for signs of compromise of sub-surface well integrity during alloperations including well intervention activity into a suspended or dead well,or whilst killing any well.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training12The following elements of training should be adopted to improve the ability of theOperations Team to detect a possible influx or an unexpected anomaly at an earlystage: the importance of kick and leak detection equipment and how it is maintained accurate interpretation of sensor readings the different signs of anomalies and early detection techniques that mayindicate influx potential the importance of fluid flow monitoring for early kick detection.The learner will know that the Well Control Management plans will include theexpected response.Shutting-in the well should be seen as the right response action. Training shouldhelp foster a culture not to ignore anomalies and “if in doubt, shut in”. Well controltraining should communicate a strong message that, if a well is suspected tobe flowing unintentionally, the immediate response is to shut-in the well theninvestigate the potential influx or anomaly (not investigate then shut-in).In certain operations where the planned response is not a typical well shut in (i.e.during underbalanced drilling, managed pressure drilling, well kill operations orcases where concern exists regarding barrier envelope capacity), training shouldhelp develop the skills needed to return the situation to normal.Training should promote understanding of Optimism bias, a false sense ofsecurity: instead, be vigilant and thorough in monitoring, detecting and responding.4.2.2 Risk awareness and risk managementThe objective is for everyone to develop their own risk awareness and riskmanagement skills. It is recommended that the fundamentals of risk managementas appropriate for each training are delivered.Training should enable the learning of the fundamentals of risk managementand how it should be applied throughout the life cycle of a well. It should provideindividuals with an appropriate, role-specific, ability to: explain the overall risk management process and the elements within it recognize the significance of uncertainties recognize hazards and its potential consequences participate in a risk management activity specific to their area of responsibility understand, or where appropriate implement, the process for determiningthe risk management approach necessary to manage specific activities recognize the impact of situational awareness by the complete OperationsTeam to managing well site risks.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training13The Operations Team is the Well Operations personnel who are from oil andgas producing companies, drilling contractors, well intervention and wellservicing companies, covering both well-site and office-based personnel thatsupport the activity.There should be a strong emphasis placed on how deviations from the plan orchanges to the process are to be managed, through an appropriate Managementof Change (MOC) process with all applicable risks considered and managedaccordingly.4.2.3 Procedures and procedural disciplineFundamental to delivering a safe well operation is having in place appropriateprocedures which are followed and verified compliant. This aspect of riskmanagement should be emphasized throughout the training.Procedural Discipline (sometimes known as Procedural Compliance) is neededto guard against errors that can be induced by inappropriate substitutions orshort-cuts.It is important to convey during training that any modification to procedures, workinstructions or a previously approved programme of work should include: a proper risk assessment an appropriate Management of Change execution sign off by the designated Approving Authority.4.2.4 Barrier managementWell control training should have a strong focus on the concept of barriers andbarrier management. It should include barrier selection, verification, monitoringand repair, in relation to physical elements, management systems and humanbarrier elements and associated controls.Such training should: ensure a comprehensive and common understanding from well designthrough construction, operation and into suspension or abandonment – ofwhat constitutes barriers to flow (primary and secondary), how they areverified, monitored and repaired ensure an understanding of well barrier elements and the importance ofredundant barriers
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training14 convey the importance of maintaining dual barriers during operations on andbelow surface casing (i.e. when a blowout preventer (BOP) or Christmas treeis in place) and management of the barrier systems when key barriers areinstalled, removed or changed indicate the importance of human intervention where a system requireshuman initiation to achieve the required barriers note the importance of maintaining dual barriers below surface when a wellprofile change is made, for example, when a cementation of perforation isundertaken highlight the importance of assuring dual barrier protection duringsuspension or abandonment operations (for example when BOPs and/orChristmas trees will be removed for extended/indefinite periods of time) ensure all participants know the barriers for which they are responsible,e.g. on the basis of bow tie methodology. See Appendix D for a briefdescription of the bow tie methodology.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training155. Well control learning methodsA person will have many well control learning opportunities throughout his or hercareer. Methods are likely to be varied. Examples are set out here.5.1Role-specific well control trainingThe employer is responsible for assuring that all personnel who can impact thewell barriers have role specific well control training.Training should be focused on specific roles and the training should enableindividuals to gain the skills to demonstrate capability to fulfil their own wellcontrol responsibilities. Examples of the roles typically held by the wellsite supportpersonnel are set out in section 6 (Role-Based Training levels).Well control training for specialized operations are set out in section 7.Role-specific training delivery may be in house or by third party training provider.Assurance of the quality of the role-specific well control training may be carriedout in house. Alternatively, some operators could choose to manage assuranceof role-specific well control training via an accredited training body. See section 8(Assuring the quality of well control training).Well-site support personnel, for example those contributing from servicecompanies, should have options for in-house focused training at the level of theirsupporting responsibilities specific to their impact on well control assurance.5.2Scenario-based training eventsScenario-based well control training is a term that refers to training activitieswhere both technical and non-technical / Well Operations Crew ResourceManagement (WOCRM or CRM) skills are able to be applied to particularchallenging scenarios. This could utilize a well control simulator, other computersimulation or desktop-exercise or even be carried out on a training-rig.See Appendix B (Background on Well Operations Crew Resource Management).Although scenario-based well control training has been available for several years,it should become widespread as an essential component of well control trainingand certification for personnel involved with the detection, shutting-in and recoveryfrom well control events. This should be as relevant for well construction activitiesas it is for well servicing/intervention.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training16Scenario-based well control training: can be applied to benefit both the drilling, completion and the wellintervention communities can enhance an Operations Team’s ability to quickly recognize and mitigatewell control events effectively and safely.This method of learning, normally in a team (the team present in the class or theOperational Team, or Sub-Team, designated by the operator), is especially valuablewhen coupled with theory-based training and assessment.Scenario-based training is of most benefit when entire rig or intervention teams canbe trained together for their specific well challenges and particularly for complexwells (e.g. narrow margin wells and high pressure high temperature wells).Drilling Well on Simulator (DWOS) and Complete Well on Simulator (CWOS) cancreate highly realistic and challenging scenarios that allow teams to practicetechnical knowledge and procedural compliance and understanding. This can helpdevelop knowledge of Human Factors and the application of CRM skills.These training events should be created to offer learning opportunities to all inthe broad spectrum of team members. This should encourage participants toinvestigate and learn in a multi-discipline group setting, e.g. the preparationsfor achieving Process Safety. Such learning should improve knowledge andappreciation of the barriers that are available in complex scenarios, be theyphysical, procedural (human) or organizational.Scenario-based training may also be performed together with office drilling/completion/intervention engineers in order to enhance the communication of riskidentified and to obtain a better understanding as to how the plans and proceduresare to be applied during operations.Scenario-based training is ideally developed jointly between the operator and rigcontractor and/or well intervention service company.Scenario-based training can add particular value to difficult and complex welloperations. It can also be considered for wider application. In all cases the trainingactivity should allow “mistakes” to be made and promote learning in a safe trainingenvironment rather than during a real event on the job.Scenario-based training can address many aspects and should be targetedto greatest relevant risks and criticality, based on the known and uncertainparameters (e.g. varying pore pressures, fracture strengths, permeability, porecontent) leading to different type, size and kick intensity of influxes.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training17The relevance to the participants upcoming activities is normally the focus, e.g. theuncertainty of the relevant fracture strength window of the particular planned fieldactivity. This could be for the construction of an exploration well, or of a section tobe drilled with MPD/UBD method or of a well side-tracking activity. On the otherhand, if a specific well intervention activity has unknown or uncertain variablesthat could produce a critical outcome, the training should be set up so that theresponse to these should be practiced.5.3Continuous learning in the workplacePersonnel involved in well operations should also participate in continuouslearning rather than relying only on a classroom based training and assessmentprocesses. Continuous learning can be achieved in a multitude of ways which mayinclude online training, rigsite training and face-to-face refresher training.As an example of refresher training, a good methodology to achieve this is throughregular and documented ‘hands-on’ well control simulation exercises or kickdrills, or scenario-based discussions with the rig crews at the well-site. Theseshould simulate the different types of potential well control problems that mayoccur in the planned operations.These exercises should routinely involve supervisors and office-based staff, andinclude a formal debriefing on how the well control event was managed. Thisshould not only serve to improve team response but will also serve to improveactive awareness in the detection and avoidance of well control events. For officebased teams, this can improve accurate problem diagnosis and formulation of aneffective response plan.Continuous learning is recommended to maintain Level 5 proficiency in order tokeep focus on well control during design as technology, practices, designs, andstandards evolve with time.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training186. Role-Specific Training levelsPersonnel should be trained and certified at a specific level appropriate to theirrole. They should maintain certification while performing within the role.In addition to the normal criteria that typically dictate the type of well controltraining that a person receives (operation type, operating environment, rig type,blowout preventer (BOP), intervention equipment type, etc.), there should alsobe consideration of the role the person plays within the Operations Team indetermining final training requirements.Members of the Operations Team are each responsible for Well Control: thisincludes prevention, recognition and response. The Role-Specific Training levelsmatch the responsibility according to the actions which would be expected of eachperson.For example, of the well-site personnel – supervisory staff specify, oversee andverify; equipment operators act to prevent or respond; and the other personnelon site communicate any anomalous observations to the equipment operator andsupervisory staff.These role-specific training levels are recommended to be adopted for oil and gaswell operations. Training should always be tailored within each level accordingto the specific operation, environment, surface or subsea location of rig orintervention unit (e.g. BOP type).See Appendix A (Managing risks, progression and dispensation).Table 1 provides a summary of the Role-Based Training levels, which is followed bya full specification of the responsibilities for each level.The levels and responsibilities have also been collated onto one large wallchart: 476chart, Well Control Training – Levels Guidance Chart, published atthe same time as this report.
Recommendations for enhancements to well control training19Table 1: Summary of the Role-Based Training levelsLevelTraining is onresponsibilities forAction may occur relative toWell Control Assurance (WCA) aWhat training thisperson needs1All personnelcontributing tothe well projectFor individuals who needan awareness of what wellcontrol is and those who couldperform an action that mightindirectly impact WCAHave relevant awarenessknowledge of the Key Topicsto provide effective support.2OperationsTeam PersonnelWell-site based positionwhose action or inaction thatcould directly influence WCAHave knowledge andskills to effectively actunder guidance (monitor,observe, report)3EquipmentOperatorHas to perform an action toprevent or to respond to wellcontrol incidentsCorrect actions to take4SupervisorSpecifies and has oversightth
installations that utilize surface well control equipment 2) Drilling with floating rig operations utilizing subsea well control equipment. Differences in well control challenges should be identified for the following environments: water depth varying in comparison from shallow to much deeper