Transcription erikson psychosocial theory.htm#erikson psychosocial theory summaryerikson's psychosocial developmenttheoryerik erikson's psychosocial crisis life cycle model - the eight stages of humandevelopmentErikson's model of psychosocial development is a very significant, highlyregarded and meaningful concept.Life is a serious of lessons and challenges which help us to grow. Erikson'swonderful theory helps to tell us why.The theory is helpful for child development, and adults too.For the 'lite' version, here's a quick diagram and summary. Extra details followthe initial overview.For more information than appears on this page, read Erikson's books; he wasan award-winning writer and this review does not convey the richness ofErikson's own explanations. It's also interesting to see how his ideas developover time, perhaps aided by his own journey through the 'psychosocial crisis'stages model that underpinned his work.Erik Erikson first published his eight stage theory of human development inhis 1950 book Childhood and Society. The chapter featuring the model wastitled 'The Eight Ages of Man'. He expanded and refined his theory in laterbooks and revisions, notably: Identity and the Life Cycle (1959); Insight andResponsibility (1964); The Life Cycle Completed: A Review (1982, revised1996 by Joan Erikson); and Vital Involvement in Old Age (1989). Erikson'sbiography lists more books.Various terms are used to describe Erikson's model, for example Erikson'sbiopsychosocial or bio-psycho-social theory (bio refers to biological, which inthis context means life); Erikson's human development cycle or life cycle, andvariations of these. All refer to the same eight stages psychosocial theory, itbeing Erikson's most distinct work and remarkable model.

The word 'psychosocial' is Erikson's term, effectively from the wordspsychological (mind) and social (relationships).Erikson believed that his psychosocial principle is genetically inevitable inshaping human development. It occurs in all people.He also referred to his theory as 'epigenesis' and the 'epigenetic principle',which signified the concept's relevance to evolution (past and future) andgenetics.Erikson explained his use of the word 'epigenesis' thus: ".epi can mean'above' in space as well as 'before' in time, and in connection with genesis canwell represent the space-time nature of all development." (from VitalInvolvement in Old Age, 1989).In Erikson's theory, Epigenetic therefore does not refer to individual geneticmake-up and its influence on individual development. This was not central toErikson's ideas.Erikson, like Freud, was largely concerned with how personality and behaviouris influenced after birth - not before birth - and especially during childhood. Inthe 'nature v nurture' (genes v experience) debate, Erikson was firmly focusedon nurture and experience.erik erikson's eight stages of psychosocialdevelopmentLike other seminal concepts, Erikson's model is simple and elegant, yet verysophisticated. The theory is a basis for broad or complex discussion andanalysis of personality and behaviour, and also for understanding and forfacilitating personal development - of self and others.The main elements of the theory covered in this explanation are:Erikson theory overview - a diagram and concise explanation of themain features of model.The Freudian stages of psychosexual development, which influencedErikson's approach to the psychosocial model.Erikson's 'psychosocial crises' (or crisis stages) - meanings andinterpretations.

'Basic virtues' (basic strengths) - the potential positive outcomes arisingfrom each of the crisis stages.'Maladapations' and 'Malignancies' - potential negative outcomes (oneor the other) arising from each crisis stage.Erikson terminology - variations and refinements to names andheadings, etc.Erik Erikson biography (briefly)N.B. This summary occasionally uses the terms 'positive' and 'negative' toidentify the first or second factors in each crisis (e.g., Trust positive;Mistrust negative) however no crisis factor (disposition or emotional force whatever you choose to call them - descriptions are quite tricky as evenErikson found) is actually wholly positive or wholly negative. Healthypersonality development is based on a sensible balance between 'positive' and'negative' dispositions at each crisis stage. Erikson didn't use the wordspositive and negative in this sense. He tended to use 'syntonic' and 'dystonic'to differentiate between the two sides of each crisis, which is why Ioccasionally use the more recognisable 'positive' and 'negative' terms, despitethem being potentially misleading. You should also qualify your use of theseterms if using them in relation to the crisis stages.erikson's psychosocial theory - summary diagramHere's a broad introduction to the main features of Erikson's model. Variouspeople have produced different interpretations like this grid below. Eriksonproduced a few charts of his own too, from different perspectives, but heseems never to have produced a fully definitive matrix. To aid explanationand use of his theory he produced several perspectives in grid format, someof which he advocated be used as worksheets. He viewed his concept as anevolving work in progress. This summary attempts to show the main points ofthe Erikson psychosocial crisis theory of human development. More detailfollows this overview.Erikson'spsychosocialcrisis stages(syntonic vdystonic)Freudianpsychosexualstageslife stage / relationships / issuesbasic virtue andsecond namedstrength (potentialpositive outcomesfrom each crisis)maladaptation/ malignancy(potentialnegative outcome - one orthe other - from unhelpfulexperience during eachcrisis)

1. Trust vMistrustOralinfant / mother / feeding and beingcomforted, teething, sleepingHope and DriveSensory Distortion/ Withdrawal2. Autonomyv Shame &DoubtAnaltoddler / parents / bodily functions,toilet training, muscular control,walkingWillpower andSelf-ControlImpulsivity / Compulsion3. Initiative vGuiltPhallicpreschool / family / explorationand discovery, adventure and playPurpose andDirectionRuthlessness / Inhibition4. Industry vInferiorityLatencyschoolchild / school, teachers,friends,neighbourhood /achievement andaccomplishmentCompetence andMethodNarrow Virtuosity/ Inertia5. Identity vRoleConfusionPubertyandGenitalityadolescent / peers, groups,influences / resolving identity anddirection, becoming a grown-upFidelity andDevotionFanaticism / Repudiation6. Intimacy vIsolation(Genitality) young adult / lovers, friends, workconnections / intimaterelationships, work and social lifeLove andAffiliationPromiscuity / Exclusivity7.Generativityv Stagnationn/amid-adult / children,community / 'giving back', helping,contributingCare andProductionOverextension/ Rejectivity8. Integrity vDespairn/alate adult / society, the world,life / meaning and purpose, lifeachievementsWisdom andRenunciationPresumption / DisdainThe colours are merely to help presentation and do not signify anyrelationships between factors. This chart attempts to capture and presentconcisely the major elements of Erikson's theory, drawn from various Eriksonbooks, diagrams and other references, including Childhood and Society(1950); Identity and the Life Cycle (1959); The Life Cycle Completed: AReview (1982, revised 1996 by Joan Erikson); and Vital Involvement in OldAge (1989). Erikson later suggested psychosexual stages 7 and 8, but theyare not typically part of Freud's scheme which extended only toPuberty/Genitality. See Freud's psychosexual stages below.erik erikson's psychosocial theory overviewErikson's psychosocial theory is widely and highly regarded. As with anyconcept there are critics, but generally Erikson's theory is consideredfundamentally significant. Erikson was a psychoanalyst and also ahumanitarian. So his theory is useful far beyond psychoanalysis - it's useful

for any application involving personal awareness and development - of oneselfor others.There is a strong, but not essential, Freudian element in Erikson's work andmodel. Fans of Freud will find the influence useful. People who disagree withFreud, and especially his psychosexual theory, can ignore the Freudian aspectand still find Erikson's ideas useful. Erikson's theory stands alone and does notdepend on Freud for its robustness and relevance.Aside from Freudian psychoanalysis, Erikson developed his theory mainly fromhis extensive practical field research, initially with Native Americancommunities, and then also from his clinical therapy work attached to leadingmental health centres and universities. He actively pioneered psychoanalyticaldevelopment from the late 1940's until the 1990's.Erikson's concept crucially incorporated cultural and socialaspects into Freud's biological and sexually oriented theory.Erikson was able to do this because of his strong interest and compassion forpeople, especially young people, and also because his research was carriedout among human societies far removed from the more inward-looking worldof the psychoanalyst's couch, which was essentially Freud's approach.This helps Erikson's eight stages theory to be a tremendously powerful model:it is very accessible and obviously relevant to modern life, from severaldifferent perspectives, for understanding and explaining how personality andbehaviour develops in people. As such Erikson's theory is useful for teaching,parenting, self-awareness, managing and coaching, dealing with conflict, andgenerally for understanding self and others.Both Erikson and his wife Joan, who collaborated as psychoanalysts andwriters, were passionately interested in childhood development, and its effectson adult society. Eriksons' work is as relevant today as when he first outlinedhis original theory, in fact given the modern pressures on society, family andrelationships - and the quest for personal development and fulfilment - hisideas are probably more relevant now than ever.Erikson's psychosocial theory basically asserts that people experience eight'psychosocial crisis stages' which significantly affect each person'sdevelopment and personality. Joan Erikson described a 'ninth' stage afterErik's death, but the eight stage model is most commonly referenced and isregarded as the standard. (Joan Erikson's work on the 'ninth stage' appears inher 1996 revisions to The Life Cycle Completed: A Review, and will in thefuture be summarised on this page.)

Erikson's theory refers to 'psychosocial crisis' (or psychosocial crises, beingthe plural). This term is an extension of Sigmund Freud's use of the word'crisis', which represents internal emotional conflict. You might also describethis sort of crisis as an internal struggle or challenge which a person mustnegotiate and deal with in order to grow and develop.Erikson's 'psychosocial' term is derived from the two source words namely psychological (or the root, 'psycho' relating to the mind, brain,personality, etc) and social (external relationships and environment), both atthe heart of Erikson's theory. Occasionally you'll see the term extended tobiopsychosocial, in which bio refers to life, as in biological.Each stage involves a crisis of two opposing emotional forces. A helpful termused by Erikson for these opposing forces is 'contrary dispositions'. Each crisisstage relates to a corresponding life stage and its inherent challenges. Eriksonused the words 'syntonic' for the first-listed 'positive' disposition in each crisis(e.g., Trust) and 'dystonic' for the second-listed 'negative' disposition (e.g.,Mistrust). To signify the opposing or conflicting relationship between each pairof forces or dispositions Erikson connected them with the word 'versus', whichhe abbreviated to 'v'. (Versus is Latin, meaning turned towards or against.)The actual definitions of the syntonic and dystonic words (seeErikson'sterminology below) are mainly irrelevant unless you have a passion for thedetailed history of Erikson's ideas.Successfully passing through each crisis involves 'achieving' a healthy ratioor balance between the two opposing dispositions that represent each crisis.For example a healthy balance at crisis stage stage one (Trust v Mistrust)might be described as experiencing and growing through the crisis 'Trust' (ofpeople, life and one's future development) and also experiencing and growinga suitable capacity for 'Mistrust' where appropriate, so as not to be hopelesslyunrealistic or gullible, nor to be mistrustful of everything. Or experiencing andgrowing through stage two (Autonomy v Shame & Doubt) to be essentially'Autonomous' (to be one's own person and not a mindless or quiveringfollower) but to have sufficient capacity for 'Shame and Doubt', so as to befree-thinking and independent, while also being ethical and considerate andresponsible, etc.Erikson called these successful balanced outcomes 'Basic Virtues' or 'BasicStrengths'. He identified one particular word to represent the fundamentalstrength gained at each stage, which appear commonly in Erikson's diagramsand written theory, and other explanations of his work. Erikson also identifieda second supporting 'strength' word at each stage, which along with the basic

virtue emphasised the main healthy outcome at each stage, and helpedconvey simple meaning in summaries and charts. Examples of basic virtuesand supporting strengths words are 'Hope and Drive' (from stage one, Trust vMistrust) and 'Willpower and Self-Control' (from stage two, Autonomy vShame & Doubt). It's very useful however to gain a more detailedunderstanding of the meaning behind these words because although Erikson'schoice these words is very clever, and the words are very symbolic, using justone or two words alone is not adequate for truly conveying the depth of thetheory, and particularly the emotional and behavioural strengths that arisefrom healthy progression through each crisis. More detail about basic virtuesand strengths is in the Basic Virtues section.Erikson was sparing in his use of the word 'achieve' in the context ofsuccessful outcomes, because it implied gaining something clear-cut andpermanent. Psychosocial development is not clear-cut and is not irreversible:any previous crisis can effectively revisit anyone, albeit in a different guise,with successful or unsuccessful results. This perhaps helps explain how 'highachievers' can fall from grace, and how 'hopeless failures' can ultimatelyachieve great things. No-one should become complacent, and there is hopefor us all.Later in his life Erikson was keen to warn against interpreting his theory intoan 'achievement scale', in which the crisis stages represent single safeachievement or target of the extreme 'positive' option, secured once and forever. Erikson said (in Identity and the Life Cycle):".What the child acquires at a given stage is a certain ratio between thepositive and negative, which if the balance is toward the positive, will helphim to meet later crises with a better chance for unimpaired totaldevelopment."He continued (in rather complicated language, hence paraphrasing) that at nostage can a 'goodness' be achieved which is impervious to new conflicts, andthat to believe so is dangerous and inept.The crisis stages are not sharply defined steps. Elements tend to overlap andmingle from one stage to the next and to the preceding stages. It's a broadframework and concept, not a mathematical formula which replicatesprecisely across all people and situations.Erikson was keen to point out that the transition between stages is'overlapping'. Crisis stages connect with each other like inter-laced fingers,not like a series of neatly stacked boxes. People don't suddenly wake up one

morning and be in a new life stage. Changes don't happen in regimentedclear-cut steps. Changes are graduated, mixed-together and organic. In thisrespect the 'feel' of the model is similar to other flexible human developmentframeworks (for example, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross's 'Grief Cycle', and Maslow'sHierarchy of Needs).Where a person passes unsuccessfully through a psychosocial crisis stagethey develop a tendency towards one or other of the opposing forces (eitherto the syntonic or the dystonic, in Erikson's language), which then becomes abehavioural tendency, or even a mental problem. In crude terms we mightcall this 'baggage' or a 'hang-up', although perhaps avoid such terms inserious work. I use them here to illustrate that Erikson's ideas are very muchrelated to real life and the way ordinary people think and wonder aboutthings.Erikson called an extreme tendency towards the syntonic (first disposition) a'maladapation', and he identified specific words to represent the maladapationat each stage. He called an extreme tendency towards the dystonic (seconddisposition) a 'malignancy', and again he identified specific words to representthe malignancy at each stage. More under 'Maladapations' and 'Malignancies'.Erikson emphasised the significance of and 'mutuality' and 'generativity' in histheory. The terms are linked. Mutuality reflects the effect of generations oneach other, especially among families, and particularly between parents andchildren and grandchildren. Everyone potentially affects everyone else'sexperiences as they pass through the different crisis stages. Generativity,actually a named disposition within one of the crisis stages (Generativity vStagnation, stage seven), reflects the significant relationship between adultsand the best interests of children - one's own children, and in a way everyoneelse's children - the next generation, and all following generations.Generations affect each other. A parent obviously affects the child'spsychosocial development, but in turn the parent's psychosocial developmentis affected by their experience of dealing with the child and the pressuresproduced. Same for grandparents. Again this helps explain why as parents (orteachers or siblings or grandparents) we can often struggle to deal well with ayoung person when it's as much as we can do to deal with our own emotionalchallenges.In some ways the development actually peaks at stage seven, since stageeight is more about taking stock and coming to terms with how one has madeuse of life, and ideally preparing to leave it feeling at peace. The perspective

of giving and making a positive difference for future generations echoesErikson's humanitarian philosophy, and it's this perhaps more than anythingelse that enabled him to develop such a powerful concept.erikson's psychosocial theory in more detailfreud's influence on erikson's theoryErikson's psychosocial theory of the 'eight stages of human development'drew from and extended the ideas of Sigmund Freud and Freud's daughterAnna Freud, and particularly the four (or five, depending on interpretation)Freudian stages of development, known as Freud's psychosexual stages orFreud's sexual theory. These concepts are fundamental to Freudian thinkingand are outlined below in basic terms relating to Erikson's psychosocialstages.Freud's concepts, while influential on Erikson, are not however fundamental toErikson's theory, which stands up perfectly well in its own right.It is not necessary therefore to understand or agree with Freud's ideas inorder to appreciate and use Erikson's theory. If you naturally relate to Freud'sideas fine, otherwise leave them to one side.Part of Erikson's appeal is that he built on Freud's ideas in a sociallymeaningful and accessible way - and in a way that did not wholly rely onadherence to fundamental Freudian thinking. Some of Freud's theories bytheir nature tend attract a lot of attention and criticism - sex, breasts,genitals, and bodily functions generally do - and if you are distracted or putoff by these references then ignore them, because they are not crucial forunderstanding and using Erikson's model.freud's psychosexual stages - overviewAge guide is a broad approximation, hence the overlaps. The stages happenin this sequence, but not to a fixed timetable.Freudian psychosexual stages - overviewErikson'sage guide

psychosocialcrisis stages1. Oral Stage - Feeding, crying, teething, biting, thumb1. Trust vsucking, weaning - the mouth and the breast are the centreMistrustof all experience. The infant's actual experiences andattachments to mum (or maternal equivalent) through thisstage have a fundamental effect on the unconscious mindand thereby on deeply rooted feelings, which along with thenext two stages affect all sorts of behaviours and (sexuallypowered) drives and aims - Freud's 'libido' - and preferencesin later life.0-1½ yrs,baby, birth towalking2. Anal Stage - It's a lot to do with pooh - 'holding on' or2. Autonomy v1-3 yrs,'letting go' - the pleasure and control. Is it dirty? Is it okay? Shame and Doubt toddler, toiletBodily expulsions are the centre of the world, and the pivottrainingaround which early character is formed. Am I pleasing mymum and dad? Are they making me feel good or bad aboutmy bottom? Am I okay or naughty? Again the young child'sactual experiences through this stage have a deep effect onthe unconscious and behaviours and preferences in later life.3. Phallic Stage - Phallic is not restricted to boys. This stage 3. Initiative vis focused on resolving reproductive issues. This is a sort of Guiltdry run before the real game starts in adolescence. Where dobabies come from? Can I have a baby? Why has dad got awilly and I've not? Why have I got a willy and mum hasn't?Why do they tell me off for touching my bits and piecesdown there? (Boys) I'm going to marry mum (and maybekill dad). (Girls) I'm in love with my dad. Oedipus Complex,Penis envy, Castration Anxiety, etc. "If you touch yourselfdown there it'll fall off/heal up." Inevitably once more,experiences in this stage have a profound effect on feelingsand behaviour and libido in later life. If you want to knowmore about all this I recommend you read about Freud, notErikson, and I repeat that understanding Freud'spsychosexual theory is not required for understanding andusing Erikson's concepts.3-6 yrs, preschool,nursery4. Latency Stage - Sexual dormancy or repression. Thefocus is on learning, skills, schoolwork. This is actually nota psychosexual stage because basically normally nothingformative happens sexually. Experiences, fears andconditioning from the previous stages have already shapedmany of the child's feelings and attitudes and these will resurface in the next stage.5-12 yrs, earlyschool4. Industry vInferiority

5. Genital stage - Puberty in other words. Glandular,5. Identity v Rolehormonal, and physical changes in the adolescent child'sConfusionbody cause a resurgence of sexual thoughts, feelings andbehaviours. Boys start treating their mothers like womanservants and challenge their fathers (Freud's 'Oedipus').Girls flirt with their fathers and argue with their mums(Freud's 'Electra'). All become highly agitated if away froma mirror for more than half an hour (Freud's Narcissus orNarcissism). Dating and fondling quickly push schoolworkand sports (and anything else encouraged by parents andfigures of authority) into second place. Basically everyone isin turmoil and it's mostly to do with growing up, whichentails more sexual undercurrents than parents would everbelieve, even though these same parents went throughexactly the same struggles themselves just a few yearsbefore. It's a wonder anyone ever makes it to adulthood, butof course they do, and mostly it's all perfectly normal.11-18 yrs,puberty, teensearlier forgirlsThis is the final Freudian psychosexual stage. Erikson'smodel, which from the start offers a different and moresocially oriented perspective, continues through to old age,and re-interprets Freudian sexual theory into the adult lifestages equating to Erikson's crisis stages. This incorporationof Freudian sexual stages into the adult crisis stages is notespecially significant.Arguably no direct equivalent Freudian stage, although asfrom Identity and the Life Cycle (1969) Erikson clearlyseparated Puberty and Genitality (Freud's Genital stage) ,and related each respectively to Identity v Role Confusion,and Intimacy v Isolation.6. Intimacy vIsolation18-40,courting, earlyparenthoodNo direct equivalent Freudian stage, although Erikson laterinterpreted this as being a psychosexual stage of'Procreativity'.7. Generativity vStagnation30-65, middleage, parentingAgain no direct equivalent Freudian stage. Erikson latercalled this the psychosexual stage of 'Generalization ofSensual Modes'.8. Integrity vDespair50 , old age,grandparentsN.B. This is a quick light overview of Freud's sexual theory and where itequates to Erikson's crisis stages. It's not meant to be a serious detailedanalysis of Freud's psychosexual ideas. That said, I'm open to suggestionsfrom any Freud experts out there who would like to offer improved (quick,easy, down-to-earth) pointers to the Freudian psychosexual theory.

erikson's eight psychosocial crisis stagesHere's a more detailed interpretation of Erikson's psychosocial crisis stages.Remember age range is just a very rough guide, especially through the laterlevels when parenthood timing and influences vary. Hence the overlapbetween the age ranges in the interpretation below. Interpretations of agerange vary among writers and academics. Erikson intentionally did notstipulate clear fixed age stages, and it's impossible for anyone to do so.Below is a reminder of the crisis stages, using the crisis terminology of theoriginal 1950 model aside from the shorter terminology that Erikson laterpreferred for stages one and eight. The 'Life Stage' names were suggested inlater writings by Erikson and did not appear so clearly in the 1950 model. Agerange and other descriptions are general interpretations and were not shownspecifically like this by Erikson.Erikson's main terminology changes areexplained below.Crisis stages are driven by physical and sexual growth, which then promptsthe life issues which create the crises. The crises are therefore not driven byage precisely. Erikson never showed precise ages, and I prefer to state widerage ranges than many other common interpretations. The final three (adult)stages happen at particularly variable ages.It's worth noting also that these days there's a lot more 'life' and complexityin the final (old age) stage than when the eight stages were originallyoutlined, which no doubt fuelled Joan Erikson's ideas on a 'ninth stage' afterErik's death.erikson's eight psychosocial stagesPsychosocial Crisis StageLife Stageage range, otherdescriptions1. Trust v MistrustInfancy0-1½ yrs, baby, birth towalking2. Autonomy v Shame andDoubtEarly Childhood1-3 yrs, toddler, toilettraining3. Initiative v GuiltPlay Age3-6 yrs, pre-school, nursery4. Industry v InferioritySchool Age5-12 yrs, early school5. Identity v Role ConfusionAdolescence9-18 yrs, puberty, teens*

6. Intimacy v IsolationYoung Adult18-40, courting, earlyparenthood7. Generativity v StagnationAdulthood30-65, middle age, parenting8. Integrity v DespairMature Age50 , old age, grandparents* Other interpretations of the Adolescence stage commonly suggest stage 5begins around 12 years of age. This is reasonable for most boys, but giventhat Erikson and Freud cite the onset of puberty as the start of this stage,stage 5 can begin for girls as early as age nine.Erikson's psychosocial theory essentially states that each person experienceseight 'psychosocial crises' (internal conflicts linked to life's key stages)which help to define his or her growth and personality.People experience these 'psychosocial crisis' stages in a fixed sequence, buttimings vary according to people and circumstances.This is why the stages and the model are represented primarily by the namesof the crises or emotional conflicts themselves (e.g., Trust v Mistrust) ratherthan strict age or life stage definitions. Age and life stages do feature in themodel, but as related rather than pivotal factors, and age ranges areincreasingly variable as the stages unfold.Each of the eight 'psychosocial crises' is characterised by a conflict betweentwo opposing positions or attitudes (or dispositions or emotional forces).Erikson never really settled on a firm recognisable description for the twocomponents of each crisis, although in later works the first disposition isformally referred to as the 'Adaptive Strength'. He also used the terms'syntonic' and 'dystonic' for respectively the first and second dispositions ineach crisis, but not surprisingly these esoteric words never featured stronglyin interpretations of Erikson's terminology, and their usual meanings are notvery helpful in understanding what Erikson meant in this context.The difficulty in 'labeling' the first and second dispositions in each crisis is areflection that neither is actually wholly good or bad, or wholly positive ornegative. The first disposition is certainly the preferable tendency, but anideal outcome is achieved only when it is counter-balanced with a degree ofthe second disposition.Successful development through each crisis is requires a balance and ratiobetween the two dispositions, not total adoption of the apparent 'positive'

disposition, which if happens can produce almost as much difficulty as astrong or undiluted tendency towards the second 'negative' disposition.Some of the crisis stages are easier to understand than others. Each stagecontains far more meaning than can be conveyed in just two or three words.Crisis stage one is 'Trust versus Mistrust', which is easier to understand thansome of the others. Stage four 'Industry versus Inferiority' is a little trickier.You could say instead 'usefulness versus uselessness' in more moderncommon language. Erikson later refined 'Industry' to 'Industriousness', whichprobably conveys a fuller meaning. See the more detailed crisis stagesdescriptions below for a clearer understanding.Successful passage through each stage is dependent on striking the right

The main elements of the theory covered in this explanation are: Erikson theory overview - a diagram and concise explanation of the main features of model. The Freudian stages of psychosexual development, which influenced Erikson's approach to the psychosocial model. Erikson's 'psychosocial crises' (or crisis stages) - meanings and interpretations.