Transcription

Guidance on Shared & Interactive Writing“Shared and interactive writing provide powerful demonstrations of writing that help young children makeprogress in their own writing”(Carrier, Pinnell & Fountas, 2000).Shared and Interactive Writing are SHORTSHARPSHINY10 to 15 minutes – Key Stage 115 to 20 minutes – Key Stage 2One teaching focus/objective on trait,process, or product per dayHighly engaging for students, packedfull of opportunities for students toparticipateShared WritingShared writing is an essential component of comprehensive balanced literacy and gradual release of responsibility, andalso includes modeled writing and think alouds, interactive writing, guided writing and independent writing. The gradualrelease of responsibility incorporates a variety of instructional strategies with the goal of moving students towardsindependently applying learning from writing mini-lessons. Shared writing is the second step in the gradual release ofresponsibility model.MODELED WRITING“I do it, you watch.”(Teacher demonstrates)HIGH Teacher creates, writes, and thinks aloudSHAREDWRITING“We do it together.”(Teacher scaffoldsand supports)LEVEL OF TEACHER SUPPORTShared writing is a supported writing experience in which the teacherand students collaborate to compose a text. While modeled writingsessions provide students with a fully supported writing experienceduring which they listen to, observe, and notice writing behavioursdemonstrated by the teacher, shared writing transforms into acollaborative experience. In shared writing, students are invited togenerate ideas and apply writing/thinking processes, whilst the teachercontrols the pen/marker and scribes the students’ ideas, providingadditional support through prompts, questions, and suggestions whennecessary. The collaboratively created text should not include errors,whether dictated by a student or deliberately included by the teacher.The result of shared writing is a high-quality text free of errors that isread together after composition. It should also be made easily availableto students to read over and use as a model for their own writing. As allstudents are contributing ideas to the class text, the writing must beclearly visible to the class in print (e.g., chart paper) or digital form (e.g.,SmartBoard). The collaborative nature of shared writing and the teacherassuming all responsibility for encoding allows all students to focus solelyon generating quality ideas related to the instructional objective and tofeel like writers regardless of their writing ability. Shared writing is aninstruction-packed component of a comprehensive literacy programme.It promotes the continuous development of writing skills related to thetraits of writing, the writing process, and text forms or features and indoing so fosters a love of writing. Shared writing is a powerful teachingtool in all areas of the curriculum and can be used to teach studentshow to write about a science experience, a math reflection, or a songfor music. Written textclearly visibleto all studentsStudentsgenerate andprovide ideasTeacher scribesCo-creationINTERACTIVEWRITING“We do it together.”(Teacher scaffoldsand supports) Written textclearly visible toall studentsStudentsgenerate andprovide ideasTeacher sharespen withstudentsCo-creationand co-writingGUIDED WRITING“You do, I help.”(Teacher guides and coaches) Small instructional group based onidentified area of needFocused, well-supported lessonsStudents independently create and writewhile teacher closely monitorsINDEPENDENT WRITING“Show me you can do it alone.”(Teacher observes)Interactive writing, in which the teacher and student collaborate tocompose a text, is another supported writing experience with severalsimilarities to shared writing. Students participate by sharing their ideas,but in interactive writing, the teacher and students share the task of LOW Independent application of proficientwriting skills and strategiesTransfer learning to a new situationTeacher confers to monitor and support

scribing, with opportunities for students to take the pen/marker to write letters, words, phrases, or sentences with theteacher’s guidance.Benefits of Shared and Interactive Writing“Shared writing is the main way in which writing is taught. If teachers are not regularly using shared writing then they arenot teaching writing” (Corbett, 2008, p.5).Shared and interactive writing provide the opportunity:- To connect oral language and the writing process- To deliver an authentic writing experience as students and the teacher collaborate to compose a text- For students to focus exclusively on composing, idea generation, and the thinking involved in writing without fear offailure or worrying about the actual writing (leaving the transcribing to the teacher)- For all students to participate in the writing process- To motivate students to write more with increasing confidence and competence- To create a common text for students to refer back to when writing independently (the text has greater meaning asstudents contributed to it)- To explicitly teach strategies for planning, drafting, revising, editing and publishing- To create and reinforce several writing habits, including rehearsing sentences before recording, re-reading textsduring and after composition to assess for content, sentence flow, word choice, etc., and/or orally segmenting aword to hear all the sounds before scribing- To set students up for writing success in future independent tasks- To make the writing process visible and concreteDuration and FrequencyShared and interactive writing are useful tools at any grade level and can be used throughout the school year with thewhole class or even with small groups who may need a little more support. Shared and interactive writing lessons shouldbe briskly paced and the recommended lesson duration is between 5 to 20 minutes, depending on Key Stage, lessonobjective, and student needs. Shared and interactive writing should occur during the literacy block; however, severalother opportunities for these instructional experiences exist throughout the school day and across subject areas. Whilemany experts agree that shared and interactive writing should occur on a regular basis, particularly for Key Stage 1, thefrequency will depend on instructional foci, the stage of the gradual release of responsibility, the stage of the text-typestudy, and the level of responsibility students are ready to assume. For example, if the instructional focus is the trait ofsentence fluency, specifically the sub-skill of using connectives, and instruction is only just beginning in this trait, theteacher should begin at stage one of the gradual release of responsibility by modeling the use of connectives and by usinga think aloud to express the thinking habits of proficient writers. At this time, it would not be realistic to expectstudents to assume any responsibility for the writing process in that particular objective. As students become morefamiliar with the trait and sub-skill and have observed the teacher’s modeling, instruction will shift into shared andinteractive writing.Key Components of Shared and Interactive WritingAddressing MisconceptionsThe chart below will clarify some common misconceptions related to shared and interactive writing.Shared and Interactive Writing are Shared and Interactive Writing are not A short mini-lesson with a focused teaching pointbased on the instructional needs of the students Lively and engaging for students The second phase of the gradual release ofresponsibility, serves as a gateway to guided andindependent writing Together, the students and the teacher compose atext that is clearly visible to all A time to expose students to the writing process andprovide them with a safe environment to take risks as Merely scribing for students, writing down their ideasverbatim like an enthusiastic secretary – teachers needto shape and guide the writing and prompt students,or make suggestions for the language they’re strugglingwith. Likewise, interactive is not when students takefull responsibility and transcribe the text entirely –they may write a single letter, a word, a phrase, or asentence depending on ability and instructional focus(e.g., a child who has not yet developed a knowledgeof the alphabet can still participate by showing where a

writers One planned instructional strategy for each minilesson to expose students to the traits of writing andthe writing process; however, other teachablemoments may arise in the lesson A teacher and student collaborative writingexperience, in which the students assume someresponsibility of the writing process and worktogether to compose a text of greater complexity thanwhat they can do independently A time for all students, regardless of ability, to feel likewriters as they contribute ideas and/or write letters,words, phrases or sentences A learning opportunity for students to benefit fromdiscussing with peers and listening to and learning fromothers (whole group interactive teaching) Supporting and extending students’ thinking processesrelated to the lesson objective and at particularlytricky points of the writing process A time for all voices to be heard and for all ideas thatmake sense to be incorporated into the textspace goes between words) A maxi-lesson, more than 20 minutes in length, inwhich the teacher attempts to tackle multipleinstructional foci and extends beyond studentattention Only an instructional strategy for Early Years and KeyStage 1; because shared and interactive writing arecritical instructional steps in the gradual release ofresponsibility, they are essential for writers of all ages Decontextualizing writing skills (e.g., writing sentencesin isolation related to a particular grammar concept,such as using speech marks) A text that is written by the teacher ahead of time,recorded on chart paper or the SmartBoard, and thenpresented to students. A key aspect of shared andinteractive writing is the joint composition andparticipation of the students and the teacher An opportunity for the teacher to deliberately makeerrors – if errors happen to be made duringtranscribing, the teacher should discuss and modelwhat a proficient writer does to revise or edit (e.g.,use to insert a missed word, put a line through aduplicated word, add an ‘s’ to the end of a word if leftoff by accident)Roles and ResponsibilitiesEach stakeholder has specific roles and responsibilities within shared and interactive writing. The roles andresponsibilities of the teacher, students, and administrator are set out in the chart below:The Teacher Identifies a clear instructionalfocus based on student need(from assessment data)Uses prompts and cues toencourage students to apply newskills and strategies; asksquestions that help students applynew skills in writing and usehigher-order thinking skillsPromotes development of writingskills both in the process ofwriting and in the use of theelements of effective writingCreates authentic and meaningfulwriting opportunities for studentsto engage in writing (e.g., involvingreal-life situations or activities ofwhich students have some priorknowledge or experience)Sets routines and expectations forshared writing (e.g., effective talkpartners, attentive listeningbehaviours, etc.) and creates aThe Students Learn by listening and watchingcarefullyEngage in conversation togenerate and contribute ideas tothe text when they are ready sothat the teacher then scribes; orin interactive, participate inscribing when invitedBehave like writersApply and practice previouslymodeled writing behavioursPractice writing in a safe,supportive, and authenticenvironment, allowing themselvesto take risks and make mistakesDevelop the confidence to writeincreasingly complex textsExperience writing through avariety of genres, text-types andformsRead the composed text together,checking/revising what they havewritten and deciding what, ifThe Administrator -Ideally, creates a timetable inwhich all classrooms have a daily,uninterrupted 90 minute literacyblock so all aspects of balancedliteracy can occur each dayEnsures teachers have access tonecessary shared and interactivewriting resourcesRegularly monitors the quality ofshared and interactive writinginstruction, encouraging reflectionand providing feedback as well assupport and guidance whennecessaryEncourages teachers tocollaborate within year levels andacross divisions to share ideas andcreate engaging and interactivewriting lessonsEncourages teachers to engage inreflective practice with questionslike:Do you think your students are engagedin the writing lessons?

safe and authentic writingenvironmentConsistently schedules sharedwriting lessonsDisplays the completed text ateye-level so that students mayrevisit the text over and overagainMakes cross-curricular links toother subject areasMakes ongoing observations andassessments of student progressand selects foci for future sharedand interactive writing lessonsthat address identified needsReflects after the lesson onstudents’ progress and next stepsfor instruction anything, needs to be fixed and/orwritten nextRevisit the collaborative textindependently and use it as amodel for their own writing--How are you connecting writingobjectives to other aspects of yourliteracy programme and instruction?How did you determine the teaching foci?What methods do you use to recordobservations of students’ understandingand writing behaviours in shared andinteractive writing sessions?How often do you conduct shared andinteractive writing lessons?How does shared and interactive writingsupport all writers in your classroom?Areas of Instructional FocusEach shared and interactive writing lesson must have a very clear instructional focus. The areas of instructional focus forshared and interactive writing are based on the 6 1 traits of writing, the writing process, the behaviours of a proficientwriter, as well as on the assessment of student needs. Additionally, year level Programmes of Study should bereferenced when planning lessons and identifying areas of instructional focus.Some general examples of areas of instructional focus may include, but are not limited to:Writing Traitor ProcessWhat It Means / What It Looks LikeThe content:Finding a topic, focusing the topic, developing the topic, using detailsIdeasRevisingPresentationIn Year 1, the teacher takes students on an internal field trip to various locations around the schooland playground. After each exploration, the students return to the classroom and discuss the placesthey visited, as the teachers records their ideas in words and pictures on chart paper (finding thetopic). Together, the class selects one event as the small moment to write about in greater detail(focusing the topic).“Make it better”In Year 5, the teacher and students return to a text composed in a previous shared writing lessonto revise for word choice. As the class reviews the text, the teacher prompts students to selectstronger vocabulary, more subject-specific terminology, and/or a wider variety of word choices.Using standard revising marks, the teacher makes student-suggested changes on the chart paper.The physical appearance of the piece:Applying handwriting and spacing skills, using word processing skills, using white space effectively,incorporating text features.In Reception, the teacher uses a spaghetti and meatball analogy to help students with their spacingof letters within words and spaces between words. The teacher asks students to hold the spaghettistrings (e.g., a thin strip of yellow paper) between letters as she/he scribes a simple sentencedeveloped by the students. The teacher also asks students to hold the meatball (e.g., a red circletaped to a popsicle stick) between words.*Refer to year level Programmes of Study for specific learning objectives.

MaterialsIn order to facilitate effective shared and interactive writing, teachers needan abundant supply of chart paper and markers of varying colours.Although the teacher may opt to use the SmartBoard or PrometheanBoard in shared or interactive writing from time to time, it is highlyrecommended to use chart paper so that the collaborative text can beposted in the classroom for student referral and use. An easel may behelpful to ensure that the chart paper is displayed at an appropriate heightand is clearly visible to students to foster easy participation in scribingduring interactive lessons. An area where students can sit in closeproximity to each other and the teacher (e.g., carpet area) is also highlyrecommended for students of all ages. Other resources that will benefitstudents during shared and interactive writing lessons include access to aclassroom word wall and/or alphabet chart, magnetic letters, and a pointerfor re-reading the shared composition.Genres and FormsThe Scope of Performance Tasks integrates several genres and forms across year levels. Each year level has arecommended genre and/or form (when applicable); in addition to the single recommendation, teachers are alsoencouraged to incorporate a wider variety of genres/forms into the writing classroom to allow students the opportunityto write for a broader range of audiences and purposes. Some genres and forms include:GenresCategorizations of fictional or non-fictional texts organized by literary style, structure, or theme- Biography- Autobiography- Adventure- Fable- Magazine articles- Fairy tale- Fantasy- Folk tale- Ghost story- Websites- Historical fiction- Humour- Informational text- Legend / myth- Letters- Memoir- Mystery- Poetry- Science fiction- InterviewsFormsThe way in which a text-type is presented- E-mail- Diary- Blog- Invitation- Magazine article- Interview- Manual- Short story- Diamante- Logo- Announcement- Journal- Website- Business letter- Newspaper article/report- List- Advertisement- Picture book- Novel- Sign- Maps- Poster- Eyewitness report- Charts- Brochure/pamphlet- Memo- Script (e.g., play script, radio script, podcast script)- Editorial- Caption- Diagram (with labels)- Survey- Menu- Recipe- Free verse- Haiku- Storyboard- Comic- Song- Note / card

Planning for Shared and Interactive WritingUnlike shared reading, shared and interactive writing lessons need not progress through several sequential lessons. Ashared or interactive writing mini-lesson may stand on its own; however, there are times when composition of the textthrough shared or interactive lessons would span across several consecutive lessons. Teachers are reminded to use thegradual release of responsibility when planning text-type units and writing mini-lessons and to reflect on studentachievement as students are gradually given more responsibility for the writing. Formative assessment is essential.Planning Checklist to Conduct Effective Shared and Interactive Writing LessonsIn order to create effective shared and interactive writing lessons, teachers need to consider the following (not allcriteria will be present in every individual lesson):Teacher Preparationo Plan for whole-class instruction or plan for a small group based on similar identified needso Select an instructional focus targeting an identified need (see Programmes of Study section)o Consider the prior knowledge and experiences of students so they can be active participants in the writingprocess (create a shared experience if necessary)o Estimate the number of lessons students will need to acquire a deep understanding of the instructional focus andplan for seamless connections if continuing text composition over several dayso Consider and select an appropriate form that matches the instructional foci and text-type of study (see Genresand Forms section), ensuring that students are exposed to a wide variety of forms throughout shared andinteractive lessonso Prepare materials (e.g., chart paper, markers, picture prompts, previously read mentor text, previously cocreated anchor charts, etc.)Before Writing – “Minds On” – To promote successful writing by ensuring learner readiness and building excitementfor the texto Activate students’ prior knowledge of the text-type, genre, and/or form of the writing and the topico Use a creative hook to get students interested and create excitement before writingo Facilitate an opening discussion, focusing on appropriate pre-writing activities and/or writing skills (e.g.,brainstorming topics, selecting a form, activating schema/prior knowledge, writing behaviours, trait sub-skills,etc.)o If a mentor text has been previously examined, review or facilitate a discussion of the author’s crafto If a continuation of the shared composition is underway, re-read what has already been writtenDuring Writing – “Action” – To think like a writer, to generate ideas, to apply the lesson objective, and tocollaboratively compose a text with teacher supporto Ensure all students can clearly see the texto Explicitly state the writing focus and lesson objectiveo Teacher may briefly model and think aloud to highlight important concepts, strategies, and behaviourso Teacher encourages students’ oral participation and idea generation (e.g., through talk partners) and scribestheir suggestions or invites students to have a turn scribing a portion of the texto Teacher prompts, questions, and extends student ideas and intersperses their contributions with his/her ownthink alouds in an effort to encourage student reflection on next stepso Teacher and students read and re-read written text to aid continuity and flow and make suggestions forimprovement (e.g., “We’ve used the word ‘said’ too often. Let’s change that.”)o Teacher and students refer to previously co-created anchor chartso Scaffold and support students when necessaryAfter Writing – “Consolidation” – To review the text, to reflect on writing and the writing process, and to revisit theinstructional objectiveo Read the collaborative compositiono Revisit purpose for writing (focus) and discuss how it strengthened the text or helped as a writero Students share their new learning and engage in self-assessmento Facilitate interactive dialogue by asking pointed questions for reflection

oSet students up for relevant application, extension, or independent activitiesExtension & Follow-Upo Make text available for students to refer to when writing independentlyo In subsequent sessions, the teacher may type a copy of the text created during shared or interactive writing andhave students work in small heterogeneous (mixed) groups to revise the draft for a specific trait. After smallgroups complete their revisions, further revisions can be made as whole class to the original text on chart paper.Alternatively, in younger year levels, the teacher may opt to only revise the text in an additional whole groupshared experience.o Teacher reflection, questions like: What did I teach? Do we need to revisit the same text? (e.g., adding ideas and content, revising and editing, addingtext features, etc.) What did my students learn? Do my students see the value of what they learned? What do my students still need to learn? Are my students ready to apply the writing focusindependently? Will what I have planned for tomorrow be effective? Or should I make any changes to my plans?

Sample Detailed Lesson Plan (Year 1)Lesson PlanInstructional Setting:Whole class instruction (Interactive Writing)Objective: Students will generate and provide ideas for labels of a familiar character from Shared Reading andparticipate in the writing process by scribing a letter, digraph, or whole word that is phonetically plausible. Students willpractice proficient writer behaviours by orally segmenting words before writing.Time: 10 to 15 minutesMaterials and Resources:o Text: Little Miss Muffet (written on chart paper)o Chart paper with Miss Muffet illustrationo MarkersPrerequisite Knowledge and Skills: In a previous sharedreading lesson, students have been introduced and havebecome familiar with the character, Little Miss Muffet. Using afamiliar text will provide students with a common topic towrite about and ensures they have adequate prior knowledge to be active participants in the interactive writing lesson.Students have already been exposed to phonemic awareness skills, including oral segmentation, and have anunderstanding of the alphabetic principle (phonics).THE LESSONTeacher Preparation:o Before beginning the lesson, ensure that the chart paper is placed in an area that is easily visible and accessible tostudents. Secure the adequately sized illustration of the character to the centre of the chart paper and drawarrows to the parts of the picture that will be labeled.Before:o Together with the students, re-read Little Miss Muffet. Ensure crisp pointing and model 1:1 matching duringreading.o Remind students of the tricky vocabulary used in the text (e.g., tuffet, curds and whey).During:o Link before activity and state the lesson objective: “Today we will write together as a class to label a picture all aboutMiss Muffet. Your job is to develop the ideas for our labels and together we’ll take turns writing the labels on ourdiagram. Before we write our labels, we want to stretch out our words to hear all the sounds and then do our best towrite those letters.”o Teacher models and expresses writer’s thoughts using a “think aloud” strategy. “I see an arrow coming from thepillow (remember, this is what the text calls ‘her tuffet’) so I need to write a label for it. Let me stretch out the word‘pillow’ so I can hear all the sounds.” Teacher segments ‘pillow’ and counts the sounds on his/her fingers. Teacherslowly repeats sounds and slowly records the appropriate graphemes.o Have students talk to a partner to discuss words that could be used as labels for the other arrows.o Point to the hat. Ask a student what word they used to label that part of the diagram. Have all students orallysegment the word and count the number of sounds on their fingers. Agree that there are three sounds in theword ‘hat’. As a scaffold, draw three lines (one sound per line) where the label belongs. Ask one student tocome use the marker to write the label. As this student writes on the chart paper, encourage the remainingstudents to use their finger to “write” the word on the carpet in front of them or on the palm of their hand.

oooN.B.: The teacher needs to consider developmental abilities when selecting students to record during interactivewriting. For this example, a student with a name beginning with ‘H” may be asked to record the first letter andonly the first letter. Alternatively, a student, regardless of name, may write the first letter and the teacher canfinish the word. Furthermore, a student can attempt to write the whole word if it is an appropriate challenge.Continue a similar process to write labels for the remaining arrows of the diagram, providing prompts,questions, and supports when necessary. Remind students to use the class alphabet chart or Jolly Phonicsplacards.Read the labels of the finished diagram.After:o Formative assessment. Provide students with mini-whiteboards and markers. Then, provide students with ashort word (e.g., easily segmented) that could be added to the diagram (e.g., hair, leg, web, hand). Have studentsorally segment the word, write the word on their mini-whiteboard and hold their mini-whiteboard up in front oftheir chest. Continue process with a few words.o Observe students’ ability to complete this task, accurately segmenting and making phonetically plausibleattempts, and use it to inform future whole class and small group instruction.

Sample Detailed Lesson Plan (Year 3)Lesson PlanInstructional Setting:Whole class instruction (Shared Writing)Objective:Students will generate and provide ideas for sentences that are of different lengths to compose a texttogether as a class. Students will observe as the teacher scribes their ideas and listen to any teacher “think alouds”describing what a good writer does.Time: 15 to 20 minutesMaterials and Resources:o Chart papero Markerso Sentence chart (see below)o Previously co-created anchor chart on connectives to refer to throughout the lessonPrerequisite Knowledge and Skills: Recently, students went on a field trip to Pedro Castle. This shared experiencewill allow students to collaborate on a text because all participants have prior knowledge regarding the subject. Studentshave participated in previous lessons on the sentence fluency sub-skill of using connectives to make longer, morecomplex sentences. The anchor chart created in one of these sessions will be used as a scaffold and reminder tostudents throughout this shared writing lesson. Routines and expectations for talk partners have previously beenestablished and practiced to ensure meaningful engagement, discussion, and idea sharing throughout lessons.THE LESSONTeacher Preparation:o Before beginning the lesson, ensure that the chart paper is placed where it is clearly visible to all students.Before:o Have students close their eyes and visualize the class trip to Pedro’s Castle. Encourage students to think deeplyabout all the small moments that made up the day.o After independent thinking time, have students talk to a partner and share vivid details of events they rememberfrom their day at Pedro’s Castle.Words inDuring:SentenceSentenceo Link the Before Activity and state the lesson objective: “Today we will write together as a15class about our field trip to Pedro’s Castle. Your job is to develop the ideas of our text and my29job is to record your fabulous ideas and together, we’ll write a text that recounts our field trip.31As we write, we want to ensure that our reader will be engaged when reading our text. One47way to do this is through the trait of sentence fluency. Remember, one part of sentencefluency is writing sentences of different lengths – some long sentences, some short sentences,and some teeny tiny sentences.”o Prompt students to consider potential audience

Shared and interactive writing are useful tools at any grade level and can be used throughout the school year with the whole class or even with small groups who may need a little more support. Shared and interactive writing lessons should be briskly paced and the recommended lesson duration is between 5 to 20 minutes, depending on Key Stage, lesson