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Heat exchanger plate calculator. Plate type heat exchanger calculation xls. Plate heat exchanger calculator excel. Heat exchanger calculator.This approach also allows DOE to capture the effects on manufacturers of amended standards for all classes, better reflecting the burdens for manufacturers that produce equipment across several equipment classes. Table V.34—Cumulative Net Present Value of Consumer Benefits CWH Equipment; 9 Years of Shipments[2026-2034]Discount rateTrialstandard level * (billion 2020 )12343 percent:Commercial gas-fired storage and storage-type instantaneous0.070.090.260.56Residential duty gas-fired storage0.020.000.020.06Instantaneous gas-fired tankless0.000.000.010.01Instantaneous circulating water heaters and hot water supply boilers0.020.080.120.12Total NPV at 3percent0.110.180.410.757 percent:Commercial gas-fired storage and storage-type instantaneous0.040.030.130.31Residential duty gas-fired storage0.01(0.00)0.000.03Instantaneous gas-fired tankless0.000.000.000.00Instantaneous circulating water heaters and hot water supply boilers0.010.010.030.03Start Printed Page 30710Total NPV at 7percent0.060.030.160.36* A value in parentheses is a negative number. DOE estimates that there are very few annual shipments for this equipment class. For residential-duty gas-fired storage water heaters, DOE estimated standby loss levels for each UEF level developed in the Engineering Analysis. DOE selected the highest thermal efficiency levelidentified on the market (99 percent) as the “max-tech” level for commercial gas-fired storage water heaters and storage-type instantaneous water heaters. The key GRIM outputs are the INPV, which is the sum of industry annual cash flows over the analysis period, discounted using the industry-weighted average cost of capital, and the impact todomestic manufacturing employment. As part of the manufacturer interview process, DOE sought feedback on its MPC estimates, as well as feedback on specific component, material, labor, and assembly costs. The LCC calculation also uses product lifetime and a discount rate. In addition, EPAct 1992 mandated a minimum thermal efficiency of 78percent for CWH equipment, which went into effect in 1994. When potential standard levels above the base level are analyzed, as the name implies, the shipments in the no-new-standards case that did not meet the efficiency standard level being considered would roll up to meet the next higher standard level. 15) DOE agrees with AHRI that analternative to the stock accounting method might better serve DOE's purposes. The shipments analysis section of this NOPR addresses comments received from stakeholders related to DOE's withdrawn NOPR shipment forecast that included constant equipment efficiency based on the available equipment database (see section IV.G.3). 7. CondensingCWH equipment is not required to sidewall vent exclusively and presents no special limitations restricting vertical vent scenarios. DOE has included these documents in the rulemaking record. Standby Loss Reduction Factors As part of the engineering analysis for commercial gas-fired storage water heaters, DOE reviewed the maximum standby lossequations that define the existing Federal energy conservation standards for gas-fired storage water heaters. DOE's selection of efficiency levels for this NOPR is discussed in additional detail in section IV.C.4 of this document. Commercial gas-fired storage water heaters and storage-type instantaneous water heaters save an estimated 0.56 quadswhile Residential-Duty Gas-Fired Storage equipment save 0.10 quads of energy. Table IV.31—Typical Unit Costs, Scaled for First-Hour Rating (Residential-Duty 1.0)—Electric Storage Versus Residential-Duty[2020 ]EquipmentCostNo-new- standards case new constructionNo-new- standards case replacement *Standards case newconstructionStandards case replacement *Electric StorageInstalled Cost 3,415 3,208 3,415 3,208 Energy, Maintenance, and Repair Cost (First Year)2,2572,2572,2572,257Residential-duty StorageInstalled Cost3,5891,9414,1343,486Start Printed Page 30684 Energy, Maintenance, and Repair Cost (First Year)1,1821,164999984* Installed costs forelectric storage water heaters shown for the replacement case do not include cost of infrastructure alterations ( e.g., upgraded wiring, removal or modification of gas infrastructure). Average Retail Price of Electricity (Form EIA-861). Product conversion cost are expected to reach 1.2 million. The negative free cash flow calculation indicatesmanufacturers may need to access cash reserves or outside capital to finance conversion efforts. 118; AHRI, Public Meeting Transcript. The MATS limit mercury emissions from power plants, but they do not include emissions caps and, as such, DOE's energy conservation standards would be expected to slightly reduce Hg emissions. Issue 2: DOErequests comment and information on whether integrated heat pump water heaters are capable of meeting the same hot water loads as commercial electric storage water heaters that use electric resistance elements. 3-5). Employment impacts from new or amended energy conservation standards include both direct and indirect impacts. Table IV.10—Baseline, Intermediate, and Max-Tech UEF Levels for Residential-Duty Gas-Fired Storage Water HeatersUEF levelIncremental step increaseUEF (high draw pattern) *EL0—Baseline00.6597 (0.0009 V r )EL10.020.6797 (0.0009 V r )EL20.090.7497 (0.0009 V r )EL30.180.8397 (0.0009 V r )EL40.270.9297 (0.0009 V r)EL50.340.9997 (0.0009 V r )* UEF standards vary based on the test procedure draw pattern that is used to determine the UEF rating. 66 FR 3336, 3356. The net change in jobs is so small that it would be imperceptible in national labor statistics and might be offset by other, unanticipated effects on employment. Discussion of these inputs andmethods follows the table. Instead, DOE defined “storage-type instantaneous water heater” as an instantaneous water heater that includes a storage tank with a storage volume greater than or equal to 10 gallons. In addition, stakeholders may also provide comments separately to DOJ regarding these potential impacts. 13) Several stakeholdersasserted that the assumption used for the analysis in the withdrawn NOPR of constant equipment efficiency over time was incorrect. DOE explained its shipments forecast methodology in some detail in the withdrawn NOPR, and the Department also requested feedback on the approaches used, actual historical data, or both. Shifts to or away from aparticular equipment class equals total shipments less shipments for new buildings and shipments for replacements. Grid-Enabled Water Heaters DOE currently only prescribes a standby loss standard for commercial electric storage water heaters, and in this NOPR DOE is not proposing to amend the standby loss level for electric storage waterheaters. Markups Used in This NOPR E. Appendix 7B of the NOPR TSD also provides a table of building types that DOE assumed to use recirculation loops, as well as the operation hours of the recirculation loops. DOE also considered TSL 2 and TSL 1. DOE used the AHRI shipments data to project the percentage of shipments that are condensing andnon-condensing, for the period from 2015 through the end of the analysis period. DOE further notes that only the relative costs of purchasing, installing, and operating equipment were considered in its analysis, and did not consider unrelated issues such as current trends toward electrification of customer loads, as DOE cannot speculate aboutconsumer electrification or other ( see sections IV.G and IV.H.2 of this document). Start Printed Page 30615 Table I.5—Annualized Benefits and Costs of Proposed Energy Conservation Standards for CWH Equipment[TSL 3]CategoryMillion 2020 /yearPrimary estimateLow-net- benefits estimateHigh-net- benefits estimate3% Discount RateConsumerOperating Cost Savings140.3130.3151.7Climate Benefits *112.8107.2117.8Health Benefits **150.4143.5170.0Total Benefits †404381439Consumer Incremental Product Costs ‡54.752.656.6Net Benefits3493283837% Discount RateConsumer Operating Cost Savings109.6103.3116.7Climate Benefits * (3% discount rate)112.8107.2117.8Health Benefits**104.3100.4117.2Total Benefits †327311352Consumer Incremental Product Costs ‡59.257.560.9Net Benefits267253291Note: This table presents the annualized costs and benefits associated with CWH equipment shipped in 2026-2055. The DOE test procedures for CWH equipment appear at part 431, subpart G. Together these represent the socialcost of greenhouse gases (“SC-GHG”). In the standby loss analysis, DOE considered baseline non-condensing equipment to include electromechanical flue dampers and all condensing equipment to include mechanical draft systems, both of which act to reduce standby losses out the flue. In overview, DOE used several analytical tools to estimate theimpact of the standards considered in this document. The impact of potential amended energy conservation standards was analyzed under two markup scenarios: (1) The preservation of gross margin percentage markup scenario and (2) the preservation of per-unit operating profit markup scenario, as discussed in section IV.J.2.d of this document.Product and Capital Conversion Costs d. There is evidence that consumers undervalue future energy savings as a result of (1) a lack of information, (2) a lack of sufficient salience of the long-term or aggregate benefits, (3) a lack of sufficient savings to warrant delaying or altering purchases, (4) excessive focus on the short term, in the form ofinconsistent weighting of future energy cost savings relative to available returns on other investments, (5) computational or other difficulties associated with the evaluation of relevant tradeoffs, and (6) a divergence in incentives (for example, between renters and owners, or builders and purchasers). DOE then summed the monthly hot water loads todetermine annual hot water loads. Table V.5—Average LCC Savings Relative to the No-New-Standards Case for Commercial Gas-Fired Storage Water Heaters and Storage-Type Instantaneous Water HeatersTSLThermal efficiency (Et) level (percent)Standby loss (SL) factorLife-cycle cost savingsPercentage of commercial consumers that experience anet costPercentage of commercial consumers that experience a net benefitAverage life-cycle cost savings * (2020 4990.831386664The calculation includes consumers with zero LCC savings (no impact).Note: TSL 0 represents the baseline. DOE also calculates NES in terms of full-fuel cycle(“FFC”) energy savings. (Raypak, Public Meeting Transcript, No. 20 at p. Impact of Any Lessening of Competition EPCA directs DOE to consider the impact of any lessening of competition, as determined in writing by the Attorney General, that is likely to result from a proposed standard. Need of the Nation To Conserve Energy Enhanced energyefficiency, where economically justified, improves the Nation's energy security, strengthens the economy, and reduces the environmental impacts (costs) of energy production. The representative design of each equipment category has a specific input capacity and volume as shown in Table IV.5 of this document. Distribution Channels 2. CWHequipment not meeting the definition of “residential-duty commercial water heater” was deemed to be sufficiently characterized by the current thermal efficiency and standby loss metrics. Generally, the RS Means data were in agreement with other national sources, such as the Whitestone Facility Maintenance and Repair Cost Reference. DOEcalculated venting costs for each building in the CBECS and RECS. Consumer Subgroup Analysis In the consumer subgroup analysis, DOE estimated the impact of the considered TSLs on a low-income residential population (0-20 percentile gross annual household income) subgroup. The national impacts are measured over the lifetime of each class ofCWH equipment purchased in the 30-year period that begins in the anticipated year of compliance with amended standards (2026-2055). DOE used data from EIA's Form 861  to calculate commercial and residential sector electricity prices, and EIA's Natural Gas Navigator  to calculate commercial and residential sector natural gas prices. 2;A.O. Smith, No. 39 at p. Therefore, a condensing circulating water heater or hot water supply boiler with an input capacity of 800,000 Btu/h, twice the representative input capacity, would still include only one premix burner tube and one blower, and a condensing circulating water heater or hot water supply boiler with an input capacity four timesthe representative input capacity would include only two premix burner tubes and two blowers. To identify the percentage of shipments corresponding to each efficiency level, DOE combined the efficiency trends based on AHRI and manufacturer shipments data and information derived from a database of equipment currently produced and sold bymanufacturers. NIA results are presented in chapter 10 of the NOPR TSD. These upfront investments result in a lower INPV in both manufacturer markup scenarios. 2021 Facilities Maintenance & Repair Costs with RSMeans Data. The sources of information for this database included the DOE Compliance Certification and manufacturer catalogs andwebsites. The LCC savings are calculated relative to a no-new-standards case that reflects projected market trends in the absence of amended standards. Treena V. While such features ( e.g., powered anode rods, more sophisticated building management system integration) may be included in condensing equipment currently on the market, thesefeatures are not necessary in order to achieve a higher efficiency level, and, therefore, DOE does not believe that the costs for these features should be included in the costs of condensing equipment in the engineering analysis. Chapter 7 of the NOPR TSD provides detailed information on how energy use was calculated using inlet water temperature.For a discussion of the impacts on the small manufacturer subgroup, see the regulatory flexibility analysis in section VI.B of this document and chapter 12 of the NOPR TSD. For replacement installations, the costs to remove the previous equipment (including venting when necessary) and the installation costs for new equipment, including venting andadditional expenses, are added to the product cost to arrive at the total replacement installation cost. The average energy per unit used by the CWH equipment stock gradually decreases in the standards case relative to the no-new-standards case as more-efficient CWH units gradually replaces less-efficient units. The CBECS and RECS data are usedin the CWH equipment analysis to develop a representative hot water load profile ( i.e., how much hot water is supplied to the buildings), which in turn is used to develop estimates of the operating hours and energy use for representative CWH equipment when they are installed. Issues on Which DOE Seeks Comment VIII. Impacts on DirectEmployment To quantitatively assess the potential impacts of amended energy conservation standards on direct employment in the CWH equipment industry, DOE typically uses the GRIM to estimate the domestic labor expenditures and number of direct employees in the no-new-standards case and in each of the standards cases during the analysisperiod. The Executive order also requires agencies to have an accountable process to ensure meaningful and timely input by State and local officials in the development of regulatory policies that have federalism implications. Table V.35—Cumulative Emissions Reduction for CWH Equipment Shipped in 2026-2055 Trial standard level1234PowerSector EmissionsCO 2 ( million metric tons )5243447SO 2 ( thousand tons )(0.05)(0.12)(0.04)0.06NO X ( thousand tons )4213041Hg ( tons )(0.0005)(0.0015)(0.0014)(0.0012)CH 4 ( thousand tons )0.080.460.680.95N 2 O ( thousand tons )0.010.040.070.09Upstream EmissionsCO 2 ( million metric tons )0.562.914.205.73SO 2 ( thousand tons)0.000.010.020.02NO X ( thousand tons )8.6044.6864.4488.04Start Printed Page 30711Hg ( tons )(0.00)(0.00)(0.00)(0.00)CH 4 ( thousand tons )62.79325.91469.86641.78N 2 O ( thousand tons )0.000.000.010.01Total FFC EmissionsCO 2 ( million metric tons )5263852SO 2 ( thousand tons )(0.05)(0.11)(0.02)0.08NO X ( thousand tons )136695129Hg (tons )(0.0005)(0.0016)(0.0014)(0.0012)CH 4 ( thousand tons )63326471643N 2 O ( thousand tons )0.010.050.070.10Negative values refer to an increase in emissions. Issue 4: DOE seeks comments on the extraordinary venting cost adder. DOE estimated energy consumption and savings based on site energy and converted the electricity consumptionand savings to primary energy ( i.e., the energy consumed by power plants to generate site electricity) using annual conversion factors derived from AEO2021. DOE may also rely on a combination of these two approaches. This proposed rule addresses issues raised by commenters to the extent relevant to the preparation of this NOPR. c. As explainedin section IV.D of this NOPR, CWH equipment is assumed to be delivered by the manufacturer through a variety of distribution channels. These assessments can be found in the technical support document for this proposed rulemaking. Therefore, DOE has initially determined that the energy savings possible from amended standards for suchequipment is negligible, and thus, would not impact the results of the analyses conducted for this NOPR. Table III.1—Rated Input and Storage Volume Ranges for Non-Residential-Duty Commercial Water HeatersWater heater typeIndicator of non-residential applicationGas-fired storageRated input 105 kBtu/h; Rated storage volume 120 gallons.Oilfired storageRated input 140 kBtu/h; Rated storage volume 120 gallons.Electric instantaneousRated input 58.6 kW; Rated storage volume 2 gallons. Manufacturers of these products currently offer units that meet or exceed the proposed standards. The estimated market shares for the no-new-standards case for CWH equipment are shown inTable IV.22. 79 FR 62899 (“October 2014 RFI”). Review of the Current Market for CWH Equipment 4. 14) Bock argued that the proposed standby loss levels are not representative of the capabilities of the analyzed technology options. Additionally, DOE recognizes that there is significant variation in standby loss ratings for models currently on themarket—such that an increase from 1 inch to 2 inches of foam insulation does not necessarily allow all models within a model line to achieve the incremental standby levels corresponding to foam insulation analyzed for the May 2016 CWH ECS NOPR. DOE is currently only monetizing fine particulate matter (“PM2.5 ”) and (for NOX) ozone precursorhealth benefits, but will continue to assess the ability to monetize other effects such as health benefits from reductions in direct PM2.5 emissions. When evaluating condensing thermal efficiency levels, DOE assumed the impact to standby loss from the use of a flue damper, which is not used in condensing models, is equal to the impact from use ofmechanical draft. At TSL 2, conversion costs are a key driver of results. Because DOE used heat loss calculations corresponding to commonly used technology options to inform the selection of standby loss levels for the May 2016 CWH ECS NOPR in addition to rated standby loss market data, the most stringent standby loss levels analyzed did notnecessarily reflect the current market max-tech level for each equipment category. In this scenario, the market shares of equipment in the no-new-standards case that do not meet the standard under consideration would “roll up” to meet the new standard level, and the market share of equipment above the standard would remain unchanged.Manufacturers would meet the UEF levels for residential-duty commercial gas-fired storage equipment by shifting to condensing technology. The representative designs for these residential-duty and commercial gas-fired storage water heaters are met using a condensate pump with a lower volume capacity and gallons-per-hour performance. Inmanufacturer interviews, some manufacturers raised concerns that they would not have sufficient engineering capacity to complete necessary redesigns within the 3-year conversion period. These adjustments address the overall assertion of the commenters and that the resulting channel shares reflect the market distribution, although A.O. Smithcalled for even greater reductions in shipments allocated to retail distribution channels. For example, if one department or individual within an organization is responsible for capital expenditures (and therefore equipment selection) while a separate department or individual is responsible for paying the energy bills, a market failure similar to theprincipal-agent problem can result. Additionally, managers may have other responsibilities and often have other incentives besides operating cost minimization, such as satisfying shareholder expectations, which can sometimes be focused on short-term returns. Decision-making related to commercial buildings is highly complex and involvesgathering information from and for a variety of different market actors. Deviation From Appendix A On January 11, 2022, DOE published a test procedure NOPR for consumer water heaters and residential-duty commercial water heaters. For all of these reasons, DOE determined that stranded gas-fired equipment due to common ventingcircumstances would not have a substantial impact on the results of its analysis. 81 FR 28588, 28607 (May 9, 2016). DOE notes that this value does not account for additional energy for electric water heater standby losses. As discussed in sections II.B and III.A of this document, DOE established that residential-duty commercial water heaters arecovered by the new UEF metric in the July 2014 final rule. The cost of an electrical outlet specifically for heat tape was added for this NOPR in 10 percent of instances in which heat tape was installed. DOE notes that for the LCC and PBP analyses, only site energy impacts are used. 1) In response, DOE notes that for this NOPR, it refined the totalshipment estimates and no-new-standards-case efficiency distributions in its analyses by integrating additional shipment data provided by AHRI in response to the withdrawn NOPR. The FFC factors incorporate losses in production and delivery in the case of natural gas (including fugitive emissions) and additional energy used to produce and deliverthe various fuels used by power plants. Table 1 to § 431.110( a )—Commercial Water Heater Energy Conservation StandardsEquipmentSizeEnergy conservation standards aMinimum thermal efficiency (equipment manufactured on and after October 9, 2015)Minimum thermal efficiency (equipment manufactured on and after [Compliance date ofamended standards])Maximum standby loss (equipment manufactured on and after October 29, 2003)Maximum standby loss (equipment manufactured on and after [compliance date of amended standards])Electric storage water heatersAllN/AN/A0.30 27/V m (%/h)0.30 27/V m (%/h)Gas-fired storage water heaters and storage-type instantaneouswater heatersAll80%95%Q/800 110(V r )1/2 (Btu/h)0.86 [Q/800 110(V r )1/2 ] (Btu/h)Oil-fired storage water heatersAll80%80%Q/800 110(V r )1/2 (Btu/h)Q/800 110(V r )1/2 (Btu/h)Electric instantaneous water heaters b105 kBtu/hr and 140 kBtu/hr and 120 galVery Small0.2932 (0.0015 Vr)0.2932 (0.0015 Vr) Low0.5596 (0.0018 Vr)0.5596 (0.0018 Vr) Medium0.6194 (0.0016 Vr)0.6194 (0.0016 Vr) High0.6470 (0.0013 Vr)0.6470 (0.0013 Vr)Electric instantaneous 12 kW and 58.6 kW and 2 galVery Small0.800.80 Low0.800.80 Medium0.800.80 High0.800.80a V r is the rated storage volume (in gallons), as determined pursuant to 10 CFR 429.44. As aresult of its research, DOE learned that the combustion systems and controls used in gas-fired CWH equipment have different costs related to the efficiency levels of these products, a finding in agreement with comments provided on the RFI. In response, DOE acknowledges the point and again clarifies that in the LCC model, repair costs do vary as afunction of thermal efficiency and are comparatively higher for condensing equipment. 7; Bradford White, No. 42 at p. Objectives of, and Legal Basis for, Rule Under EPCA, DOE must review energy efficiency standards for CWH equipment every six years and either: (1) Issue a notice of determination that the standards do not need to be amended asadoption of a more stringent level is not supported by clear and convincing evidence; or (2) issue a notice of proposed rulemaking including new proposed standards based on certain criteria and procedures in subparagraph (B) of 42 U.S.C. 6313(a)(6). For this NOPR, DOE conducted the cost analysis using a combination of physical teardowns andcatalog teardowns. Conduct of the Webinar D. Q is the nameplate input rate in Btu/h.† Water heaters and hot water supply boilers having more than 140 gallons of storage capacity need not meet the standby loss requirement if: (1) The tank surface area is thermally insulated to R-12.5 or more, (2) a standing pilot light is not used, and (3) for gas oroil-fired storage water heaters, they have a fire damper or fan-assisted combustion.‡ Energy conservation standards for electric instantaneous water heaters are included in EPCA. (42 U.S.C. 6316(a) and (b); 42 U.S.C. 6297) DOE may, however, grant waivers of Federal preemption for particular State laws or regulations, in accordance with the
procedures and other provisions set forth under EPCA. 2-3; A.O. Smith, No. 39 at p. In response to the May 2016 CWH ECS NOPR, DOE received comments from several stakeholders expressing concerns about DOE's heat loss calculations. Issue 4: DOE seeks comments on the extraordinary venting cost adder. The selection of cost approach dependson a suite of factors, including the availability and reliability of public information, characteristics of the regulated product, the availability and timeliness of purchasing the product/equipment on the market. Approximately half of the total commercial floorspace is assigned one of the two highest time preference premiums. L. ASHRAE 90.1 does notdivide the equipment classes for commercial gas-fired instantaneous water heaters and hot water supply boilers by input capacity. 81 FR 34440, 34476-34477 (May 31, 2016). Installation concerns are discussed in more detail in section IV.F.2.b of this NOPR. In response to the May 2016 CWH ECS NOPR, DOE received comments from stakeholdersquestioning the typical design features assumed in DOE's analysis. In the latter case, DOE assigned insulated supply, return, and riser recirculation loop piping to sampled buildings with a year of construction of 1970 or later. While DOE was unable to identify data to provide a basis for determining a potentially lower price for larger commercial andindustrial utility customers, either on a state-by-state basis or in a nationally representative manner, the historic data on which DOE did rely includes such Start Printed Page 30668 discounts. To estimate the energy efficiency distribution of CWH equipment for 2026, DOE developed the no-new-standards distribution of equipment using data fromDOE's Compliance Certification database and data submitted by AHRI regarding condensing versus non-condensing equipment. Manufacturers should refer to 10 CFR part 1003 for additional details. In the present case, as is generally the case in appliance standards rulemakings, manufacturer and equipment specific data are presented in aggregate.DOE assumes all conversion-related investments occur between the year of publication of the final rule and the year by which manufacturers must comply with the new standard. DOE requests comment on how to address the climate benefits and other non-monetized effects of the proposal. See Table V.42 for net benefits using all four SC-GHGestimates. Conversion costs total 34.6 million. DOE analyzed increased standards in terms of increases to the constant term of the UEF equations and did not consider changes to the slopes of the volume-dependent term. DOE conducted a survey of its CWH equipment database and manufacturers' websites to determine the highest thermal efficiencylevels on the market for each equipment category. The Joint Advocates referred DOE to a commercial kitchens service center for information on installation costs. 81 FR 96204, 96239 (Dec. 201 (codified at 2 U.S.C. 1531). (a) Certain material is incorporated by reference into this subpart with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register inaccordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. In its NOPR analysis, DOE assigned insulated supply, return, and riser recirculation loop piping to sampled buildings with a year of construction of 1970 or later. DOE acknowledges that changing from 1 inch of fiberglass insulation to 1 inch of foam insulation is not a viable standby-loss-reducingtechnology option for some models on the market rated at or near the current standby loss standard because they already have 1 inch of foam insulation. Maximum Technologically Feasible Levels When DOE proposes to adopt an amended standard for a type or class of covered equipment, it determines the maximum improvement in energy efficiencyor maximum reduction in energy use that is technologically feasible for such equipment. The GRIM calculates cash flows using standard accounting principles and compares changes in INPV between the no-new-standards case and each standards case. Id. In response to the May 2016 CWH ECS NOPR
Heat exchanger plate calculator. Plate type heat exchanger calculation xls. Plate heat exchanger calculator excel. Heat exchanger calculator. This approach also allows DOE to capture the effects on manufacturers of amended standards for all classes, better reflecting the burdens for manufacturers that produce equipment across several equipment classes.