AP Macroeconomics StudyguideBasic Terms for Economics---Economics: the study of how scarce resources are used to satisfy unlimited wants.Resources: we never have enough to satisfy all of our wants.Scarcity: the lack of a product or resource.Shortage: a short term lack of a product or resource.Necessities: goods which satisfy basic human needs.Luxuries: goods which consumers want, but don’t needConsumer Goods: products used for immediate consumption. For example: cars, food, toys.Producer Goods: products used to make consumer goods. For example: hammer and cranes.Three Factors of Production:o Land: natural resources such as trees, water, or mineralso Labor: mental and physical labor such as autoworkers or scientists.o Capital: factories, machines (producer goods), and money.Rational Self Interest: economists believe that people choose options that give them thegreatest satisfaction. People use available information, weigh costs and benefits, and make aself-interested choice.Macroeconomics: macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole.Positivist Economics: focus on measurable outcomes.Normative Economics: the question of what we should do. The analysis of the economy as anethical value judgment.Production Possibilities Curves and Tradeoffs-Production Possibility Curve (PPC) and TradeoffsGrowthItem 1DeclineBeyond economic means of productionInefficiency, producing under the capacity of productionooooItem 2The Production Possibility Curve shows the tradeoff between spending projects orproduction of one good to another.A shift on the PPC signifies either economic growth or economic decline.Some Assumptions of the Production Possibilities Curve: 1. Resources are fully employed. 2. Production takes place over a specific time period. 3. The resource inputs, in both quantity and quality, used to produce thegoods are fixed over this time period. 4. Technology does not change over this time period.Why do we care about Tradeoffs?

ooooThere is a scarce amount of resources available so decisions are needed tobe made to maximize utility of said resources. The costs of doing one thing over the other is considered the opportunitycost. The opportunity cost is the value of the foregone good, or the nextbest alternative.How does the curve shift? There are two key factors: 1. Change in the amount of productive resources in the economy. 2. Changes in technology and productivity.Adam Smith Key arguments: Division of labor means that production is more efficient People should pursue self-interests because competition is goodsince it means cheaper products. The government should keep its hands off the economyo This is also known as laissez faire Invisible Hand – profits drive the economy with self-interests. Free trade is crucial – nations benefit by specializing in productionof goods and by trading for items that they are less efficient inproducing.o Therefore, it would be logical to let countries do what theydo best for what they need.Two types of advantages in free trade: Absolute: Economists look at the amount of labor hours/costs it will take toproduce a product. Comparative: Theory of Comparative Advantage: even nations with absoluteadvantages still benefit from trade. Both nations trading wouldbenefit from trading products if they specialized in items that theyhave the lowest opportunity cost to produce.Calculating Opportunity Costs The opportunity cost of a product is: 𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑔𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝐺𝑜𝑜𝑑 (𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑂𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝐺𝑜𝑜𝑑)Opportunity Cost 𝐺𝑜𝑜𝑑 𝑌𝑜𝑢 𝐴𝑟𝑒 𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑂𝑝𝑝𝑢𝑟𝑡𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑠 𝐹𝑜𝑟Basic Microeconomics Supply and Demand-Demando Definition: the willingness and ability for consumers to pay for goods and services.o Law of Demand: As prices go up, the demand goes down As prices go down, the demand goes upo The Graph

P1PriceDQ1Quantityo-Factors that Influence the Shifts in Demand: Non-price factors like people’s tastes shifts the curve. Substitute products, or products that replace another product, can find anincrease demand or a decrease in demand depending on the costs of theproduct that it is substituting. Complementary products, or products that go with another product, canfind an increase in demand if the product it complements has an increase ofdemand. The Income Effect: as consumers’ incomes fluctuate, so does the level ofdemand. Increase in wages increase the demand for goods Decrease in wages decrease the demand for goods Population shifts can also effect the level demand for a product. Future expectations of prices can lead to a change in the demand for goods.Supplyo Definition: the quantity of goods that producers will supply at various prices.o The Law of Supply: As prices go up, the quantity supplied will increase AS price goes down, the quantity supplied will decrease. The Law of Supply holds true because businesses are motivated by profits.o The Graph:P1SPriceQ1QuantityoFactors that Influence the Shifts in Supply:

-The Price of Inputs: When the cost of land, labor, tax/tariff, and capitalchange in the process of production.High costs of input reduce the amount supplied whereas low costs of inputincrease the amount supplied.Technological improvements make the production process more efficientand thus increases the level of supplyAn increase in the amount of sellers or businesses in a market will lead to anincreased level of supply. The converse of this is also true.Increase of quotas, tariffs, and taxes influence supply as well: Higher taxes increase costs and reduce supply Lower taxes decrease the costs of production and increase thesupply.Equilibriumo Definition: The point where the supply curve and the demand curve intersects. This is also known as the Market Clearing Priceo The Graph:P1PriceSEquilibrium PointDQ1Quantity--Goods and Utility and How That Effects Demand and Supply:o Normal Goods: products for which the demand increases when the income ofpeople increase. This also applies conversely when the income lowers.o Inferior Goods: products that decrease in demand, even when the income of peoplerise.o Diminishing Marginal Utility: As a person increase consumption of a product, thereis a decline in the marginal utility that person gets from consuming each additionalproduct.o Diminishing Marginal Returns: This happens when a factor of production isincreased and at some point, each additional unit produced will decline. Forexample, adding more workers when production is near 100% will decreasemarginal output.Indeterminate Shifts in Supply and Demand:o When both the supply and the demand curves move simultaneously, the movementof prices and quantities can be indeterminate because we don’t know which one ismore decisive than the other.o Example of the Indeterminate Graph Shift:

S1S2P1PriceD 1 D2Q1QuantityGovernment Policy and Macroeconomics-Price Adjustmentso Price Ceiling: A government policy which sets the legal maximum price that may becharged for that good. Ceilings cause a shortage in the good.Price LevelSP1PCeilingDQsQ1QDQuantityoPrice Floor: A government policy that sets the minimum price that can be chargedfor a product. Price floors lead to a surplus in the goods.Price LevelSPfloorP1DQD Q1 Qs-Externalities and Government Actiono Negative Externalities: Definition: The negative costs paid by society for a private exchange. The government can fix this with higher standards, taxation, or fines whichwould increase the cost of production for the negative product. For example: The emission of CO2 by a coal power plant.o Positive Externalities:

- Unemploymento Impacts: Lower income, poverty, and social problems like divorce and alcoholism. Unemployment also means that resources are underutilized and the outputof society is also decreased.o Definition: Those that are in the civilian labor force who are looking for work butcannot find a job. Who is in the Civilian Labor Force?YES, PART OF LABOR FORCENO, NOT PART OF LABOR FORCEPrivate Sector Job WorkersMilitary PersonnelPeople working public sector jobs People taking care of the homeUnemployed people activelyunpaidseeking for workHigh school students under 18working part timeThose working under the tableo Calculating the Unemployment Rate: o-Definition: The positive costs paid by society for a private exchange.The good may be under produced, so the government can subsidize orimplement tax breaks to reduce the costs of producing the good.For example: The production of electric cars to reduce 𝑛𝑡 ���𝑑𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑥 100%Different Types of Employment: Underemployed: Those that have jobs, but will work part time or belowtheir skill level. Discouraged Workers: Those that have given up looking for jobs. Note:**They are not in the labor force. Overemployed: Those that are working two jobs or over 40 hours per week.o Different Types of Unemployment: Frictional: Temporary unemployment of workers that are moving from onejob to the next. Seasonal Unemployment: those that are employed for a specific season andare now unemployed. For example: Farm Workers. Structural Unemployment: Unemployment due to the decline of industriesso that the skill levels that these workers possess render useless foremployment. For example: the collapse of the steel industry leaves steelworkers unable to find jobs that require the ability to use the computer. Cyclical Unemployment: Unemployment due to job loss caused by arecession.o Full and Natural Rate of Employment: There will always be those that are unemployed due to frictionalunemployment. The natural rate of unemployment excludes cyclical unemployment andincludes frictional and structural unemployment.Inflation and Deflation

oooInflation: Definition: A short term rise in prices of a specific commodity. Impacts: It reduces the purchasing power of the consumer as the dollars intheir pocket are worth less.Deflation: Definition: A short term decrease in prices of a specific commodity. Impacts: It increases the purchasing power of the consumer as the dollars intheir pocket are worth more. It also hurts the producers.The Consumer Price Index: Definition: The government uses the Consumer Price Index (CPI) to measurethe change in basic consumer prices over time using a market basket, or theprice of essential commodities. Formula: oo𝐶𝑃𝐼 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑃𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑒𝑠𝐵𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑃𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑥 100Using the CPI to find the Inflation Rate: CPI – 100 inflation rate %Anticipated and Unanticipated Inflation: Anticipated Inflation: The rate of inflation that consumers, the governmentand business believe will occur. Unanticipated Inflation: It causes problems as prices rise or decline morethan expected. Unanticipated inflation helps debtors and hurt banks andother money lenders.Inflation and Interest Rates: Definition: The nominal interest rate is the price of borrowing money incurrent dollars. Real Interest Rate: Formula:𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛-GDP, or Gross Domestic Producto Definition: GDP Consumption Government Spending Investment Net Exporto Per Capita GDP: The amount of GDP produced in a country per person Formula: o This allows economists to compare between notions and populations. Per capita GDP does not tell us about the income distribution of the society.GDP Deflator: Formula: ���𝐺𝐷𝑃 𝐷𝑒𝑓𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟 GDI, or Gross Domestic Income Formula:𝑁𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝐺𝐷𝑃𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝐺𝐷𝑃𝑥 100

o GDI Wages Profits RentsSay’s Law: The Relation Between GDP and GDI Definition: Supply creates its own demand Producing goods generates the demand to purchase other goods.Product Market:C I G NXIncomeBusinessesHomeFactor Markets:Land (Rent), Labor (Wages),and Capital (Profits)o-Impacts of GDP Increase: Growth of GDP may bring negative externalities like pollution whichadversely effects the quality of life of a people. Economic growth does not mean a fairly distributed income to poor sectorsof society. Economic growth has the potential of increasing the standard of living for anation’s citizens.Economic Growth and The Business Cycleo Causes of Economic Growth: Productivity increase via labor increase. Increased savings will allow growth in the future of a country. Growth and improvements in technology Increase Research and Development and Innovation Increase investment in human capital. An open economy. Population Growth and Immigration.o Expansion and Contraction Cycles: Expansion occurs when the GDP grows, unemployment falls, and pricestends to rise. Contraction occurs when the GDP falls, unemployment rises and pricesoften falls.ProsperityThe EconomyPeakTroughContractionExpansion

-The Macro Modelo Aggregate Demand: AD Consumption Investment Government Spending Net Exports Increased aggregate demand leads to demand pull inflation. This is commonduring times of economic growth. What occurs is an increase in price levelswithout an increase in RGDP. Decrease in aggregate demand would lead to a lower price level.o Graph:Price LevelLRAS (Long Run Aggregate Supply)AD (Aggregate Demand)SRAS (Short Run Aggregate Supply)YReal GDP**The LRAS represents an economy where all inputs: land, labor and capital areused to full efficiencyoGrowth in the Economy Within the Macro ModelPrice LevelLRAS1LRAS2YReal GDPoSupply Shock and Demand Pull InflationSupply Shock (Cost Push Inflation)Price LevelLRAS2LRAS1Demand Pull InflationPrice LevelAD2AD1RGDPRGDP

o-Effects of Movements in the Macro Model: Interest Rate Effect: Price rise means the value of money goes down,therefore, the demand to borrow money increases and drives up interestrates. If interest rates fall, the prices will also fall. Open Economy Effect: If the price levels go up, our net exports drop. If ourprice levels drop, then our exports increase. Change in prices lead to achange in RGDP. Wealth Effect aka Real Balance Effect: If price level rises, people’spurchasing power goes down and if price levels fall, people’s purchasingpower goes up.The Classical Modelo Assumptions: Pure competition exists Wages and prices are flexible People act on their own self interest People don’t have money illusion, meaning that they understand nominalvs. real value Problems in the economy are temporary and will correct themselves.o Graph:Price LevelLRASAD1AD2RGDPoSaving and Investment When people save money, there is a leakage in the circular flow andplanned consumption can fall short of real GDP. Classical economists arguethat dollars saved will be matched by business investment equally.SavingsPrice of Credit orMoneyC1C2Investment Quantity of Savings and InvestmentPrice of credit (interest rate) ensures that they demand and supply of creditare equal.

o-Unemployment and the Classical Model Unemployment would cause wage rates to fall to the point whereunemployed workers will be hired under the classical model. In the Classical Model, people aren’t unemployed for long periods of time asthe model would eventually shift towards full employment once more.The Keynesian Modelo Assumptions: Keynes argued that wages weren’t as flexible as the classical modelsuggested due to labor unions and contracts. Keynes argued that the minimum wage sets up the price floor. He also argued that changes in aggregate demand don’t change the pricelevel.o Graph: “The Sticky Price Model”Price LevelPL1SRASAD1Y1-AD2Y2RGDPo Aggregate Demand and RGDP Under the Keynesian View Any change in aggregate demand will change RGDP, thus the RGDP isdemand determined. Under the Keynesian view, change in RGDP does not lead to a change in theprice level. In a depressed economy, increased spending can increase output withoutraising prices. Government spending would inevitably raise the Net Export, Consumption,and Investment.CINXGThe Modern SRASo New Modified Assumptions: Price and RGDP can increase together Prices can have adjustments SRAS can exceed full employment. Any change in the endowments of factors of production will cause both theSRAS and LRAS to shift. How the Aggregate Supply Increases: Discovery of raw materials, increased competition, reduced tradebarriers, reduced business regulation, decreased business tax, andreduction to the input price. Short lived events will only shift SRAS, not LRAS

oGraph:Price LevelLRASSRASAD2AD1oRGDPContractionary (Recessionary) Gap:Price LevelLRASSRASPL1PL2AD1AD2oY2 Y1RGDPInflationary (Expansionary) Gap:Price LevelLRASSRASPL2PL1AD2AD1oY1 Y 2RGDPInflation/ Deflation GraphsCost Push Inflation(Inflation from the decrease in supply)Price LevelLRASSRAS2SRAS1Secular Deflation(Price level drop because of growth)Price LevelLRAS1 LRAS2Price LevelLRASSRASADRGDPDemand Pull Inflation(Inflation from an increase in demand)AD2AD1ADRGDPRGDP

-Average Propensity to Consume and Saveooo---𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 ��𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 �� 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝑆𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 1𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 ��𝑒 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝑆𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒Marginal Propensity to Consume and Save 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 ���𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 ���𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝑆𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝐼𝑛𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑒 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑆𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠o 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝑆𝑎𝑣𝑒 𝑀𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑢𝑚𝑒 1Keynesian Multipliero Definition: The ratio of change in equilibrium level of real national income to thechange in autonomous expenditures.o Multiplier Equation:11 𝑀𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑟 1 𝑀𝑃𝐶 𝑀𝑃𝑆Keynesian Income Model45o lineConsumptionAE**Where AE C I G NX** AE All ExpendituresEquilibrium PointAutonomous ConsumptionSavingsDissavingY1National Disposable IncomeoInvestment and Keynes Investment is one of the component of consumption. When the interest rates are low, investment increases, and the converse istrue as well. There is a downward slope in the investment curve. Graph:Interest Ratei3i1i2I3I1InvestmentI2

-Causes of Investment Shifts: Future expectations of sales by business people Change in the productivity in technology. Increase or decrease in taxes. Impacts of Increased Investment: Increased investment leads to increased consumption, increasedRGDP, and increased national income. Inventory and Investment If consumers decrease the purchase of a good, then firm will slowdown production which would lead to decreased RGDP. If the business senses that their inventory is short, then they willhire and increase production, increasing RGDP.o Government Spending and Keynes It is considered autonomous (not determined by levels of disposableincome.) Government spending is a major part of the US’ GDPo Foreign Sector and Keynes: Net Exports exports – imports Trade surpluses (exports more than imports) would lead to an increase inRGDP Trade deficits (imports more than exports) would lead to a decrease inRGDP The foreign sector is also considered autonomous spendingFiscal Policyo Goals: Sustained economic growth as measured by our GDP The GDP is the total amount of goods and services produced in theUS each year. Lowering inflation in the United States Full employmento Fiscal Policy: Definition: The attempt by the government to meet specific economic goalssuch as increasing GDP, lower inflation, and lower unemployment. Fiscalpolicy includes increases or decreases in taxes and spending that is carriedout by the Congress. Main tools for Fiscal Policy: Taxation and Government Spending. Stimulatory or Expansionary Fiscal Policy (Used during economic downturn) 1. Increase government spendingo Impact: Increases aggregate demand 2. Cut taxeso Impact: Stimulate consumer spending and businessinvestment. Contractionary Fiscal Policy (Used during economic growth to lowerinflation) 1. Cut government spendingo Impact: Decreases aggregate demand 2. Increase Taxes

oo-Impact: Reduces purchasing power of consumers andbusiness investment.Tax Multiplier Formula:𝑀𝑃𝐶 𝑇𝑎𝑥 𝑀𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑟 𝑀𝑃𝑆 Tax cuts and government spending increase aggregate demand during arecession. Keynesians believe that government spending is more powerful than taxcuts. This is true because a portion of the tax cut income will be savedwhereas government spending is subject to the multiplier.o Automatic Stabilizers Unemployment compensation for workers laid off during a recession. Thisallows the government to provide income to maintain consumption. The progressive tax policy allows for a decrease in government taxes duringrecessions and increase in government taxes during economic expansion asincomes go down during downturns and increase during upswings.o Deficit Spending Impacts Keynesian Belief: Deficit during the recession will be paid off with surpluses duringeconomic growth. Classical Critique: There is a fear that government spending would lead to thecrowding out of private investment and would lead to moreeconomic problems.o Types of Annual Budgets: Deficit: When government spends more than it takes in. Surplus: When the government has more revenue than it spends. Balanced: When revenue is equal to payments for programs.Money and Monetary Policyo Money Definition of Money: A medium of exchange that sellers will accept. A unit of accounting to place a specific price on products. A storage of value that can be set aside for future purchases. A liquid asset that could be used for a variety of transactions. M1 Money: Currency, coins, checking accounts, traveler’s checks. **Note thatcredit card is not money. M2 Money: Near money such as savings deposits, CD’s, money markets. M3 Money: CD’s over 100,000 dollars and Euro dollars held by Americans.o The Federal Reserve Independent of the branches of the government. The Functions of the Fed: The Fed provides a system of check clearing.

o The Fed holds reserves of banks. The Fed supervises member banks. The Fed is the lender of last resort. The Fed regulates the money supply.Money Supply GraphNominal InterestRateMS (Money Supply)MD (Money Demand)Quantity of MoneyoMonetary Policy Expansionary Monetary Policy (during economic downturn): The Federal Reserve can raise the money supply in 3 ways:o Buy bonds on the open market which infuses cash into themoney supply.o Lower the discount rate, which is the interest rate that theFed charges member banks.o Lower the Reserve Rate, which is the amount that banksmust keep and not loan out. Contractionary Monetary Policy (during economic growth): The Federal Reserve can decrease the money supply in 3 ways:o Sell bonds on the open marketo Raise the discount rate, which is the interest rate that theFed charges member banks.o Raise the Reserve Rate, which is the amount that banksmust keep and not loan out. The Money Multiplier 𝑀𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑦 𝑀𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑟 oo 1𝑅𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑒 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒When bonds are sold, it is negativeWhen bonds are bought, it is positive.Discount and Federal Funds Rates Discount Rate: The interest rate at which the Fed charges memberbanks to borrow money Federal Funds Rate: The interest rate at which banks borrow eachother’s reserves.o If the government reduces the Federal Funds Rate, banksborrow less.

oReal Interest RateLoanable Funds GraphsS (The amount of loanable funds in banks)D (Demand of funds)Quantity of MoneyooThe Equation of Exchange MV PQ M Actual Money Held by Public, V Income Velocity (times thedollar is spent), P Price Level, Q RGDP (quantity of foods andservices) Usually we assume that the velocity of money and the RGDP arestable and do not change.Unemployment and Its Effects on Inflation: Phillips Curve:Inflation RateLRPC (Long Run Phillips Curve; This is at the natural rate of unemployment)SRPC (Short Run Phillips Curve) -Natural Rate of Unemployment Economists argue that there is a tendency for the economy to gotowards the natural rate of unemployment. The natural rate is at the LRAS. If the unemployment rate is higher than the natural rate, then theeconomy is in recession If the unemployment rate is lower than the natural rate, then theeconomy is in expansion. Wait Unemployment: Includes factors that keep the labor marketfrom operating in a perfectly competitive market including unionactivities, government licensing, minimum wages andunemployment insurance.International Macroeconomics:o Trade Terms: Import Quota: a limit on the amount of a product that can be imported. Import Tariff: a tax on a specified product. Infant Industries: those industries just getting started. Open Economy: an economy with foreign trade.o Free Trade:

ooFree Trade Pros: Countries benefit from trading for good and services that they don’thave. Countries benefit by producing what they are most efficient inproducing (Comparative Advantage). US producers benefit from exporting items to foreign countries. US consumers benefit from the lower costs of foreign products. Free Trade Cons: Increase imports hurt domestic industries which leads to domesticunemployment. Tariffs or quotas may be constituted to protect workers in the homecountry. Tariffs or quotas may be used to protect infant industries. Nations always want to maintain productive diversity. Some nations dump products or restrict US imports.The Balance of Trade: A nation’s balance of trade exports – imports. Surplus: Definition: A nation that exports more than imports will have atrade surplus. Deficit: Definition: A nation that imports more than exports will have atrade deficit. Causes:o Exports may be inferior quality.o Country may not have many products to export.o A nation’s currency may be overpriced, making importscheaper.o A nation may have higher incomes than its trading partner.o Poorer nations cannot afford richer nation’s products.The Balance of Payment: Balance of Payment: An accounting of funds that flow into and out of acountry comprised of the capital and the current account. Current Account: a portion of payments comprised of the tradebalance of goods and services. Capital Account: A portion of the balance payments comprised offoreign purchases of US assets minus US purchase of foreign assetsplus the change in official reserves. Capital Account Current Account 0CurrentAccountCapitalAccount

If we run a trade deficit, we have a deficit in the current account and asurplus in the capital account. Investments are part of the capital account, but income from theinvestments are part of the current account.o The Currency Exchange in Foreign TradeCurrency AppreciationCurrency DepreciationCurrency 1Per Currency 2Currency 1Per Currency 2SS1S2D2D1DQuantity of Currency 2Effects on Trade:- Worth more than othercurrencies- Imports are cheaper- Hurts exports, makes tradedeficits, lowers GDPQuantity of Currency 2Effects on Trade:- Worth less than othercurrencies- Makes exports stronger- Imports are more expensive,inputs for production boughtabroad are more expensiveCircumstances of Appreciation:When a country exports or sells goods toanother country.Circumstances of Depreciation:When a country imports or buys goods toanother country.oPrice Levels and Interest Rates in Net Exports High price levels discourage foreign investors from buying US products,leading to a drop in net exports. Lower price levels encourage foreign investors to buy US products, leadingto an increase in net exports. Higher interest rates encourage investors to invest in the US, leading anincrease in the capital account and reducing the net export. Lower interest rates discourage investors to invest in the US, leading adecrease in the capital account and increasing the net export.

AP Macroeconomics Studyguide Basic Terms for Economics -Economics: the study of how scarce resources are used to satisfy unlimited wants.-Resources: we never have enough to satisfy all of our wants.-Scarcity: the lack of a product or resource.-Shortage: a short term lack of a product or resource.-Necessities: goods which satisfy basic human needs.-Luxuries: goods which consumers want, but don .