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NFPA 70E and OSHA update,P t one andPartsd ttwoApril 22, 2009Sessions SCH435 and SCH436Presented by Drake Drobnick

NFPA 70E 2009UPDATEForLV Qualified PersonsSafety FactsWhy be concerned about electrical safety? Personal safety Safety for your fellowworkers Destruction ofequipment/downtime Comply withapplicable regulationsPrevent Recurrence1

Safety Facts Average of 4,000 non-disabling and 3,600disabling electrical contact injuries annually inthe United States. One person is electrocuted in the workplaceevery day. Electrocutions are the fourth leading cause oftraumatic occupational fatalities. Over 2,000 workers are sent to burn centerseach year with electrical burns.Safety Facts An electrical industry10-year study of 120,000workers 125 iinjuriesj i per year 77% electrical arc injuries 21% permanent disabilities 2.4% fatalitiesBased on ED France data, IEEE Presentation from M. Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M.D.Electrical Trauma Research Program (University of Chicago)4Safety Facts700US Fatalities with potential arc componentTrend line 1994‐20066506005505004504001994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006Statistics from BLS website,. Analysis by Hugh Hoagland ArcWear.com. To see calculations, visitwww.arcwear.com/stats.mht.52

Safety FactsSafetyOverall1 to 3001Fatality1 to 101FatalityElectricalSafety30 Lost-TimejInjuries300 Recordable Injuries10 Recordable Injuries30,000 Near Misses300,000 At-Risk BehaviorsFlash Hazard PPE – ClothingThe right stuff makes a difference38Flash Hazard PPE – Clothing25% Body BurnProbability of Survival50% Body Burn75% Body Burn100Arc Exposure w/ FRChanceof Survival, %8060Shirt Burns4020Shirt & Pant020-2930-3940-4950-59Age Range, YearsSource: American Burn Association (1991-1993 Study)383

Flash Hazard PPE – ClothingCosts of FR vs. Non-FR: A Real ExampleTwo Accidents Before FRPaid & ReserveTwo AccidentsAfter FRPaid & ReserveMedicalIndemnityVVocationaltilExpensesTotal 812,677 773,613 9948 931 1,597,229 32,707 6,035 1,903 36 44,682MedicalIndemnityVocationalExpensesTotal 309,571 49,369 9,999 20 368,992 9,213 1,890 1,195 10 12,309Source: PECO Presentation by Bill Mattiford, PES‐IEEE SeminarAccident 1: 7/29/93 Accident 2: 7/12/94 Accident 3: 6/1/95 Accident 4: 6/1/95Accidents in FR were lightweight FR uniform. Actual results may vary.38What’s New is 70E 2009 Employer/ContractorClarifications – Definitions – Safe Work PracticesRelationships. Changes to PPERequirements. When an arc flash hazardanalysis is necessary. Mandatory labels. New task & PPE tables. Additional alertingtechniques. Required training.NFPA 70E 2009Three-part structure:Chapter 1 – Safety-related work practicesChapter 2 – Safety-relatedmaintenance requirementsChapter 3 – Safety requirementsfor special equipmentREMOVED Chapter 4 – InstallationSafety Requirements. Part of NEC.4

Regulations & StandardsStrategies Embedded in NFPA 70E (2009) Electrically safe work condition Training Planning PPE 70E assumes a code-compliantinstallation.The focus of this training program is 70EChapter One, and also meets the requirementsof OSHA 1910, Subpart S 331-335.Definition of a Qualified PersonWhat is a qualified person A person who “has the skills and knowledgeA person may be “taskpofrelated to the construction and operationqualified”lifi d” – qualifiedlifi dthe electrical equipment and installations andto perform a certainhas received safety training to recognize andtask or qualified toavoid the hazards involved.”use70E,certainNFPAArticle 100, pg 13equipment, but not below voltage qualified.Responsibilities to ContractorsRelationships with Contractors & OutsidePersonnelHost employer responsibilities: To alert contractor to known hazards covered by 70E70E. Adequate information about installation so contractor canmake informed safety assessments. Report contractor employee safety violations tocontractor.NFPA 70E 110.55

Responsibilities to ContractorsRelationships with Contractors & OutsideNFPA 70E 110.5PersonnelContractor responsibilities: To inform employees of all potential hazards specific to theinstallation and to require they follow all required safe workpractices. To alert host employer of any unique hazards presented bycontractor’s work. To inform host employer of any hazards encountered thathost employee did not mention. To report measures taken to correct any violations ofrequired safe work practices.Electrical Hazards - ShockNo Permit Required for: Visual inspection (if notcrossing restrictedboundary).TESTING ISTOUCHING. Testingg ((voltage,g , current,,phasing, & system tuning). Circuit identification. Troubleshooting.NFPA 70E 130.1(B)(3)“Standing” work permits allowed ifwritten and management approved.Electrical Hazards – AFHArc in a BoxEnergy can be twoto twelve timesgreater when thegarc is an arc in abox situation.6

Flash Hazard PPE – ClothingProtective Clothing SystemsFlash Hazard PPE – LayeringLayering PrinciplesNFPA 70E does not recognize non-FR layers asadding arc flash protection in HRC tables. OnlyFR layers can be counted toward the totalprotectivet ti caloriel i count.tAlthough layered FR garments may provideprotection beyond the actual calorie count, onlythe arc rating values of individual layers isacceptable in the total count unless the systemis tested.NFPA 70E Annex MHRC PPE ChangesCategory 0 – Non-igniting, non-melting Safety glasses Hearing protection Leather gloves if rubberinsulating gloves are notrequired for shock protection Non-melting, flammable clothingwith 4.5 oz/yd2Minimum requirements – your location mayrequire additional PPE.7

HRC PPE ChangesCategory 1 – 4 cal/cm² Safety glasses 4 cal/cm2 arcarc--rated face shield or flashhood Hearing protection Leather gloves if rubber insulating glovesare not required for shock protection Hard hat Leather work shoes, as neededFlash Hazard PPE – ClothingFace shields have limitsFaceshield w/Balaclava HoodArc Rating (ATPV) 10.9 cal/cm²8

Back ExposureBalaclava and shield No Safety GlassesArc Rating (ATPV) 30 cal/cm²60 Degree Angle ExposureBalaclava, shield, no safety glassesArc Rating (ATPV) 12.8 cal/cm²Balaclava and shieldWITH Safety Glasses9

Balaclava and shieldWITH Safety Glasses Prevented allburns on allsensors. Could justifyusing abalaclava,shield andsafetyf t glasseslfor HRC 2* andpossibly HRC 3or moredepending onshield andbalaclavaHRC PPE ChangesCategory 2 – 8 cal/cm² Safety glasses 8 cal/cm2 arc-rated shirt and pants orcoveralls Hard hat (Class E) 8 cal/cm2 arc-rated face shield or hood Hearing protection Leather gloves if rubber insulating glovesare not required for shock protection Leather work shoesNatural fiber underunder--layers no longerincluded in system calorie count.HRC PPE ChangesCategory 3 – 25 cal/cm²Clothing levels must equal the calorie count forthe hazard risk category.25 cal/cm2 system:Safety glassesHard hat (Class E)Hearing protectionLeather work shoesArc-rated gloves if rubber insulating glovesArcare not required for shock protectionTotal of 25 cal/cm2 arcarc--rated protection:Shirt and pants, coveralls, arc flash suit, orany combination.25 cal/cm2 arc-rated flash hood10

HRC PPE ChangesCategory 4 – 40 cal/cm²Clothing levels must equal the calorie count forthe hazard risk category.40 cal/cm2 system:Safety glassesHard hat (Class E)Hearing protectionLeather work shoesArc-rated gloves if rubber insulating glovesArcare not required for shock protectionTotal of 40 cal/cm2 arcarc--rated protection:Shirt and pants, coveralls, arc flash suit, orany combination.40 cal/cm2 arc-rated flash hoodFlash Hazard PPE – ClothingSimplified and Fool-proofed PPE program – Usethe Common Approach (Appendix H)EitherHRC 2OrHRC4Category 2 – 8 cal/cm²Category 4 – 40 cal/cm²Flash Hazard PPE – Clothing100% Cotton vs. HRC 2 ClothingIndura UltraSoft Shirt Indura Denim Jean vs. NonNon-FR Cotton11

Flash Hazard PPE – ClothingFR over Poly Cotton –Be careful what you put beneath FRFlorida 480V AccidentElectrical Hazards – AFHDefault Flash Protection BoundaryA 48” boundary maybe used for basicsystems:– 50 to 600 voltsmaximum.– Up to 50kA availableand 2-cycle clearingtime.– Other combinations upto 100kA cycles.– Calculations arepermitted.NFPA 70E 130.3(A)48 in.12

Hazard AssessmentFlash Hazard Analysis RequiredFlash hazard analysis must be performed todetermine protection boundary and PPE.Must be reviewed aminimum of every fiveyears. Updates required ifmajor modifications orrenovations.Must consider effects ofovercurrent protectivedevices and opening times.NFPA 70 130.3Regulations & StandardsNFPA 70B requirespower circuit breakersbe maintained &calibrated on aninterval required by themanufacture or everythree to five years.Breaker maintenanceand calibration arecritical to arc flashprotection.NFPA 70E 205.3 Overcurrent DeviceANSI/NETA MTS-2007 is equivalent.12Hazard AssessmentExceptions to Performing an AnalysisException #1: Circuit is rated at 240 volts or less.less, AND, Circuit is supplied by one transformer.transformer, AND,125kVA. Transformer supplying circuit is rated at less than 125kVAException #2: The following default tables may be used inlieu of an analysis if you meet the table notes: 130.7(C)(9) Hazard/Risk Category Classifications. 130.7(C)(10) Protective Clothing and PPE. 130.7(C)(11) Protective Clothing Characteristics.NFPA 70 130.313

Hazard AssessmentArc Flash Hazard LabelsNFPA 70 130.3 (C)Equipment must be field labeled with labelsdisplaying either the incident energy level or therequired PPE.!WARNINGArc Flash and Shock HazardArc Flash Protection48’’ Flash Protection Boundary5 Cal/Cm2 @ 18 inchesShock Protection480 VAC Shock Hazard ExposureUse Class “00” Insulated Gloves with Leather Protectors, 8 Cal/Cm2 FR Clothing,Hard Hat/Face ShieldEquipment Name:Table Changes14

Table ChangesTable ChangesTable Changes15

Alerting TechniquesUse Alerting Techniques on Look-Alike EquipmentWhen a piece of equipment in an electrically safe workcondition is with other similar, still energized equipment,The de-energizedequipment must beidentified with oneor more of thealerting techniquesdescribed in130.7(E) (1), (2), or(3).NFPA 70E 130.7(E)Exposed to Electrical HazardsAlerting TechniquesNFPA 70E 130.7(E)Safety signs & tags –OSHA 1910.335 (b) Warn about electrical hazards. Must meet ANSI Z535.Barricades and signs – Used when signs are not adequate or exposed, live partsare present. Placed at the limited approach boundary or arc flashboundary, which ever greater.Attendants – Used when signs and barricades do not provide sufficientwarning.88Training for All PersonnelLevels of Training Adequate for the tasks involved. All persons must be trained in any safety-relatedpractices necessary for their safety. To work inside the limited approach boundary,an unqualified person must be trained on:– Hazards involved and potential injuries.– PPE required.– Distances to maintain.– Other safe work practices related to task.NFPA 70E 110.616

Training for Qualified PersonnelQualified Person must be trained on: Distinguishing exposed, energized conductors and parts. Determining nominal voltages. Approach distances for exposed voltages. Recognizing the degree & extent ofhazards, PPE and job planning to safelyperform task. Selection of a proper voltage detectorand safely using it to verify absence ofvoltage.voltage Annual CPR training.NFPA 70E 110.6OSHA 1910.332(b)Training for Qualified PersonnelQualified Person must be trained on:NFPA 70E 110.6OSHA 1910.332(b) Tasks performed less than once per year.Retraining required: Supervision or annual inspection indicateemployees not complying with required workpractices. New technology, new types of equipment, orchanges in procedures require different safework practices. If safe work practices not normally used arerequired.Training for Qualified PersonsTypes of training Classroom, and/or On-the-job (OJT).DocumentationRequired Demonstrated proficiency. Name and dates trainingconducted. Maintained for duration ofemployment.NFPA 70E 110.6 (D)17

Emergency Response Training Qualified employees First-aid (1910.151) BBP (1910.1030) CPR/AEDNESC National ElectricSafety Code Updated Regularly ANSI C-2 NEC is ANSI C-3 Safety for UtilitiesNESC Hazard Assessment Clothing effective as of January 1, 2009 Arc Flash Assessment required If “exposure greater than 2 cal/cm²– employer shall require employees to wear clothing that has an effective arc rating not less than theanticipated level of arc energy Secondary Systems require– 4 cal/cm² PPE– “engineering controls” due to high energies Exemption for “greater hazards” not well defined18

Things to do, Review Conduct Hazard Analysis/SelectiveCoordination study Determine a hazard mitigation strategy Update Single Line Drawingsp Electrical Safetyy Programg Develop Select PPE Train employees Label equipment Audit for compliance Review program annuallyRefer to the StandardsIf unsure, look it up!Safety Never EndsContact Informationwww e hazard [email protected] call us at 502-716-707319

Shirt and pants, coveralls, arc flash suit, or any combination. 40 cal/cm2 arc-rated flash hood Flash Hazard PPE - Clothing Either Simplified and Fool-proofed PPE program - Use the Common Approach (Appendix H) Category 2 - 8 cal/cm² Category 4 - 40 cal/cm² HRC 2 Or HRC4 100% Cotton vs. HRC 2 Clothing Flash Hazard PPE - Clothing