Transcription

PAPERHOW TO CHOOSE THE RIGHTPROTECTION FORFIRES, FLASH FIRES& ARC FLASHES

How to Choose the Right Protection for Fires, Flash Fires & Arc FlashesAn employee in Arkansas is killed when an overhead crane spills molten metal. Two workers in Oklahoma die after anelectric arc furnace explosion. Four technicians in Texas are hospitalized with severe burns after a flash fire.According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), workplace fires, explosions and other hotwork incidents kill about 200 and injure more than 5,000 employees each year.Fires, explosions, flash fires and arc flashes may have seemingly similar results, but the hazards faced and the controlsthat need to be put into place to protect employees exposed to any of these hazards are different. Understanding thedifferences between each of these hazards is vital for proper risk assessments.In this PIG Paper, we’ll look at the different types of fire hazards and the personal protective equipment (PPE) neededfor each.Types of FiresNot all fire hazards are the same. Fires can be caused by equipment failure, flammable liquid or gas releases, spills,electrical malfunctions, combustible dusts, hot work, static electricity, carelessness and many other sources. The typesof PPE needed to protect employees, as well as the engineering and other controls to prevent hazards, vary greatlydepending on the specific types of fire hazards that are present.Here are the three types of fires that employees are most likely to encounter on the job:Type of HazardDefinitionCharacteristicsFireThe result of igniting a mixture of fuel,heat and oxygen.A fire will continue burning until all of the fuel is exhaustedor until it is actively extinguished.Flash FireA sudden ignition of fuel (gas, liquid vaporor solid) that is diffused in air.Flash fires last no more than five seconds with temperaturesranging from 1,000 to 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit.Arc FlashAn electrical fault or short circuitthat passes through air.Arc flashes are characterized by a brilliant light burst, loudnoise and pressure waves. Arc flashes last less than threeseconds with temperatures often reaching more than35,000 degrees Fahrenheit.New PigOne Pork Avenue Tipton, PA 16684-03041-800-HOT-HOGS (468-4647) Fax: 1-800-621-7447 newpig.com [email protected]

Fire Resistant (FR) ClothingFabrics made of untreated naturalfibers and most synthetic fibers arecombustible. They will ignite andcontinue to burn or melt until theyare extinguished or until all of theflammable material that is availableis consumed, which increases theextent and severity of burns.FR clothing is different than regularclothing because it’s made offabrics that will not sustain a fire(continue to burn) once an ignitionsource has been removed. It’s alsodesigned to insulate the wearerfrom thermal hazards and limitsecond- and third-degree burninjuries to less than 50 percent ofthe body.FR garments should be worn by anyone who could experience the risk of fires or ignition sources in the workplace.Examples include: Foundry or refinery workers Welders and flame cutters Firefighters Petrochemical, electrical and utility workers Chemical, oil, gas and mining industry workers Food processing, painting, or pulp and paper industry workersEven though the PPE that’s used to protect workers from fire hazards is collectively marketed as “fire resistant,” simplypurchasing an item because it says it’s FR may not be enough to provide the proper protection. It’s important that thegarment is tested and passes the appropriate standards for the specific type of fire hazard that the wearer will face.Turnout gear worn by firefighters won’t protect an electrician from an arc flash incident, nor will clothing rated for arcflash properly protect a firefighter battling a structural fire. There’s also no correlation between flash fire and arc flashdata, and hazard risk categories for flash fire don’t match the arc flash hazard categories. Knowing which standardsand test methods apply to which type of hazard is critical when choosing FR clothing.New PigOne Pork Avenue Tipton, PA 16684-03041-800-HOT-HOGS (468-4647) Fax: 1-800-621-7447 newpig.com [email protected]

Fire Resistant (FR) Clothing (continued)FR fabrics can be either inherently FR or chemicallytreated to be FR. There is no “best” or “perfect” FRfabric, and inherently FR fabrics aren’t better or worsethan chemically treated FR fabrics. What is importantis whether or not the fabric will do the job that itneeds to do when there’s an emergency.In addition to choosing clothing that meets or exceedsthe appropriate standards, it’s also important toconsider the following aspects, especially for workerswho will wear FR clothing daily: Comfort Ability to wick away perspiration Durability Stability Appearance Ease of launderingArc Rating describes the performancelevel of clothing that will be worn toprotect a worker from arc flash injury.Arc ratings are measured by: A rc Thermal Protective Value (ATPV):the maximum amount of energythat a fabric can withstand beforethe person wearing it will experienceexcessive second or third degree burns E nergy of Breakopen Time (EBT): usedwhen the ATPV cannot be calculatedbecause the fabric breaks open duringthe testLike more forms of PPE, FR clothing is specialized toprotect people against specific types of fire hazards.For example, the turnout gear that keeps firefighterssafe while they battle a structural fire won’t protect anelectrician from arc flash hazards. Next, we’ll take alook at different fire hazards and the types of clothingthat may be needed for each.New PigOne Pork Avenue Tipton, PA 16684-03041-800-HOT-HOGS (468-4647) Fax: 1-800-621-7447 newpig.com [email protected]

Arc FlashAn arc flash is an electrical short circuit through air. Itcan be described as a loud explosion that includes a ballof fire, molten metal and a pressure blast capable ofdamaging hearing, altering brain function and throwingpeople and unsecured items across a room.Arc flash explosions can be caused by: Dropped tools Accidental contact with electrical systems Buildup of conductive dust Corrosion Improper work proceduresArc Flash Facts: Temperatures can reach up to 35,000degrees Fahrenheit even thoughthe entire event occurs in less than 3seconds Arc flashes happen almost too quicklyfor a person to comprehend thesituation More than 2,000 people are admittedto burn centers each year with severeburns due to arc flashes Equipment failureTo establish whether or not workers may be exposed to an arc flash, a flash hazard analysis needs to be performedfor work activities that involve electrical conductors or equipment. The findings of this study can help prevent injuryby determining the work practices and PPE needed to protect employees from arc flash hazards. The flash protectionboundaries (the distance from an exposed electrical part that could cause second degree burns if an electric arc wereto occur) will also be established from this analysis.The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has created the NFPA 70E consensus standard to provide guidanceand best practices for safeguards and procedures that can be put in place, as well as PPE to protect workers from arcflash hazards.New PigOne Pork Avenue Tipton, PA 16684-03041-800-HOT-HOGS (468-4647) Fax: 1-800-621-7447 newpig.com [email protected]

Arc Flash (continued)The following regulations, codes and standards are applicable to arc flash safety, procedures and/or PPE: ASTM D6413: Standard Test Method for Flame Resistance of Textiles (Vertical Test) ASTM F1506-10a: Standard Performance Specification for Flame Resistant and Arc Rated Textile Materialsfor Wearing Apparel for Use by Electrical Workers Exposed to Momentary Electric Arc and Related ThermalHazards ASTM F1958: Standard Test Method for Determining the Ignitability of Non-Flame-Resistant Materials forClothing by Electric Arc Exposure Method Using Mannequins ASTM F1959: Standard Test Method for Determining the Arc Rating of Materials for Clothing ASTM F2178: Standard Test Method for Determining the Arc Rating and Standard Specification for Eye orFace Protective Products ASTM F1891: Standard Specification for Arc and Flame Resistant Rainwear IEC 61482-2: Performance Requirements for vMaterials and Garments in an Electric Arc IEEE C2: National Electric Safety Code (2007) NFPA70E: Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace NFPA 70: National Electrical Code OSHA 1910.269(l)6)(iii): “The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to the hazardsof flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing that could increase the extent of injury that would besustained NOTE: Clothing made from the following types of fabrics, either alone or in blends, is prohibitedby this paragraph acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon ” OSHA 1910.132(a): “PPE for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective clothing shall be provided, usedand maintained whenever it is necessary by reason of hazards capable of causing injury” OSHA 1910.333(a): Employers must employ safety-related work practices to prevent electrical shock or otherinjuries resulting from either direct or indirect electrical contact OSHA General Duty Clause: This clause is intended to be all-encompassing, ensuring that employees have asafe work environmentNew PigOne Pork Avenue Tipton, PA 16684-03041-800-HOT-HOGS (468-4647) Fax: 1-800-621-7447 newpig.com [email protected]

Flash FiresFlash fires happen when dusts, gases or vapors areignited in air. They’re extremely fast-moving, but don’tproduce a sound or pressure wave. The fuel in a flashfire is typically consumed in 5 seconds or less.Flash fires can occur any time a sufficientamount of fuel is suspended in air andencounters an ignition source, buthazards are especially prevalent in:Because they occur in air, it can be hard to predict wherea flash fire could happen. But, some of the variables thatcontribute to flash fires — such as dust or vapor density,temperature and ventilation — can be controlled. Combustible dust industries(food processing, woodworking,pharmaceuticals, etc.) Natural gas utilitiesIn industries where combustible dusts present a flash Miningfire hazard, the NFPA 654 consensus standard Oil and gas drilling, servicing, refining(Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosionsfrom the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handlingand processingof Combustible Particulate Solids) provides guidanceand best practices for isolating processes, ventilation,fire protection systems, inspection, maintenance, good housekeeping and employee training. Analyzing risks andestablishing a plan to prevent excessive levels of dusts from accumulating on surfaces and in the air is a proven wayto help minimize risks.New PigOne Pork Avenue Tipton, PA 16684-03041-800-HOT-HOGS (468-4647) Fax: 1-800-621-7447 newpig.com [email protected]

Flash Fires (continued)In addition to work practices and safety procedures, workers who may be exposed to flash fire hazards can also beprotected with FR clothing that meets the NFPA 2112 consensus standard on Flame-Resistant Garments forProtection of Industrial Personnel Against Flash Fire.NFPA 2112 provides minimum performance criteria for FR garments. To be NFPA 2112 compliant, a garment must bemade of FR fabric and findings (zippers, buttons, etc.) and protect the worker from greater than 50 percent of secondand third-degree burns. NFPA 2113 is a companion standard that addresses the standards for care, use andmaintenance of FR garments: ASTM F2733: Standard Specification for Flame Resistant Rainwear for Protection Against Flame Hazards ASTM F1930: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection Against FireSimulations Using an Instrumented Manikin ASTM F2733: Standard Specification for Flame Resistant Rainwear for Protection Against Flame Hazards ASTM D6413: Standard Test Method for Flame Resistance of Textiles (Vertical Test). Formerly FTMS 191Aor FTM 5903.1. Used to determine the pass/fail criteria of ASTM F1506. NFPA 2112: Standard on Flame-Resistant Garments for Protection of Industrial Personnel Against Flash Fire NFPA 654: Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions From the Manufacturing, Processing, andHandling of Combustible Particulate Solids NPFA 2113: Standard on Selection, Care, Use, and Maintenance of Flame-Resistant Garments for Protectionof Industrial Personnel Against Flash Fire OSHA1910.269(l)6)(iii): “The employer shall ensure that each employee who is exposed to the hazardsof flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing that could increase the extent of injury that would besustained NOTE: Clothing made from the following types of fabrics, either alone or in blends, is prohibitedby this paragraph acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon ” OSHA 1910.132(a): “PPE for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective clothing shall be provided, usedand maintained whenever it is necessary by reason of hazards capable of causing injury” OSHA General Duty Clause: This clause is intended to be all-encompassing, ensuring that employees have asafe work environmentNew PigOne Pork Avenue Tipton, PA 16684-03041-800-HOT-HOGS (468-4647) Fax: 1-800-621-7447 newpig.com [email protected]

FiresLong before the invention of electricity and natural gas heating systems, fires kept people warm. They alsoallowed ancient civilizations to cook foods, and then eventually to melt metals to make tips for spears and otherweapons. Fires are still useful today and, fortunately, fire safety has also come a long way.However, uncontrolled fires can cause injuries and property destruction. Identifying flammable liquids and otherfire risks in a facility, and having procedures to minimize spills and maintain safe distances between incompatiblematerials and other items that could fuel fires will help minimize the chance for fire incidents.All employees need to know their role during a fire event — even if their only response is to pull an alarm andevacuate. If employees will be trained to be part of an on-site fire brigade or other fire response team, they needto be properly trained and equipped with appropriate turnout gear to protect themselves from fire conditions.Properly identifying fire risks is essential for creating plans and providing the right type of personal protectiveequipment to employees who have the potential to be injured by hazardous energy sources or who areresponding to a fire in progress. Wearing the wrong thing to social functions may be embarrassing, but when itcomes to fires, flash fires and arc flash, wearing the wrong thing can literally be a matter of life or death.New PigOne Pork Avenue Tipton, PA 16684-03041-800-HOT-HOGS (468-4647) Fax: 1-800-621-7447 newpig.com [email protected]

EXCLUSIVE PIG PAPER OFFER:FREE GRAYPIG HATwith 199 purchase!Use Promo Code FIREHATMinimize the risk of fires, flash fires & arc flashes with PIG products.CAB714MAT214PIG Flammable Safety CabinetStore 45 gal. of flammables in our FM-approvedcabinet, backed by our Lifetime Warranty.MAT240PIG Stat-Mat Absorbent MatThe ONLY absorbent mat for fuels and solventsproven to dissipate static.DRM659PIG Absorbent Mat Pad in Dispenser BoxLasts 2X longer than ordinary mats and requiresfewer changeouts; you save money.New PigPIG Latching Drum LidKeep your drums and haz waste storagecontainers closed and comply with regs.TRN104PIG Arc Flash Safety TrainingIntroductory course focuses on arc flash,electrical safety and NFPA regulations.TRN113PIG Fire Safety TrainingCore/introductory course focuses onevacuation, fire protection, prevention, more.Visit newpig.com or call 1-800-HOT-HOGS (468-4647)353213

flash hazards. Arc Flash Facts: Temperatures can reach up to 35,000 degrees Fahrenheit even though the entire event occurs in less than 3 seconds Arc flashes happen almost too quickly for a person to comprehend the situation More than 2,000 people are admitted to burn centers each year with severe burns due to arc flashes Arc Flash