Shishmaref StrategicManagement PlanShishmaref, AlaskaSeptember 2016
This page intentionally left blank.
Shishmaref Strategic Management PlanPrepared for the State of AlaskaDepartment of Commerce, Community, and Economic Development (DCCED)Division of Community and Regional Affairson behalf of the Community of Shishmarefby HDR with RIM First PeopleThis report is funded with qualified outer continental shelf oil and gas revenues by the Coastal ImpactAssistance Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.DCCED Project Manager:Sally Russell Cox, PlannerDivision of Community and Regional AffairsCommunity Coordinator:Fred Eningowuk, Native Village of ShishmarefWith special acknowledgement to the residents of Shishmaref, the community leadership, and theparticipants in the Shishmaref Interagency Working GroupNative Village of Shishmaref Johnson Eningowuk,President Tommy Obruk, VicePresident Carol Ningeulook, Secretary Mollie Ningeulook, Treasurer Ester Iyatunguk, Member Morris Kiyutelluk, Member Reuben Weyiouanna,MemberCity of ShishmarefShishmaref Native CorporationHoward Weyiouanna, MayorWilliam P. Jones, Vice MayorDonna Barr, SecretaryRussell Nayokpuk, TreasurerJohnson Eningowuk,Member Edwin Weyiouanna, Member Vincent Tockto, Jr., Member Stanley Tocktoo, President Reuben Weyiouanna, VicePresident Frieda Eningowuk, Secretary Curtis Nayokpuk, Treasurer Darlene Tocktoo-Turner,Assistant Secretary/Treasurer Russell Nayokpuk, Member Leonard Kuzuguk, Sr.,Member
Shishmaref Interagency Working Group Meeting Participants Katherine Eldemar, Alaska Department of Commerce,Community, and Economic Development, Division ofCommunity and Regional Affairs (DCCED/DCRA) Sally Russell Cox, Alaska DCCED/DCRA Diane Sam, Alaska DCCED/DCRA Jimmy Smith, Alaska DCCED/DCRA Melissa Taylor, Alaska DCCED/DCRA Ann Gravier, Alaska Department of Military and VeteransAffairs, Division of Homeland Security and EmergencyManagement (DMVA/DHS&EM) Scott Nelson, Alaska DMVA/DHS&EM Michelle Torres, Alaska DMVA/DHS&EM Kim Weibl, Alaska DMVA/DHS&EM Deanne Stevens, Alaska Department of Natural Resources,Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Alexa Green, Alaska Department of Transportation andPublic Facilities Jed Drolet, Alaska Energy Authority (AEA) Tim Sandstrom, AEA Mark Romick, Alaska Housing Finance Corporation Denise Pollock, Alaska Institute for Justice (AIJ) Robin Bronen, AIJ Jon Isaacs, AECOM Scott Simmons, AECOM Agnes Marszahk, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium(ANTHC) Don Antrobus, ANTHC/Denali Commission Dan Bocchia, ANTHC Mia Heavener, ANTHC Raymond O’Neil, ANTHC Larry Peterson, Bering Strait Native Corporation Donna Barr, City of Shishmaref William P. Jones, Sr., City of Shishmaref Aaron Cooke, Cold Climate Housing Research Center Jeff Stanley, CRW Engineering Chris Allard, Denali Commission Jay Farmwald, Denali Commission Joel Neimeyer, Denali Commission Anahma Shannon, Kawerak, Inc. Denise Michels, Kawerak, Inc. Sean McKnight, Kawerak, Inc. Erin Dougherty Lynch, Native American Rights Fund Dollie Hawley, Native Village of Kivalina, CommunityCoordinator Kirby Sookiayak, Native Village of Shaktoolik, CommunityCoordinator (2016) Michael Sookiayak, Native Village of Shaktoolik,Community Coordinator (2014-2016) Andres Kakoona, Native Village of Shishmaref Carol Ningeulook, Native Village of Shishmaref Edna Savetilik, Native Village of Shishmaref Esan Sinnok, Native Village of Shishmaref Ernest Jason Weyiouanna, Native Village of Shishmaref Esther Iyatunguk, Native Village of Shishmaref Fred Eningowuk, Native Village of Shishmaref,Community Coordinator Jane Stevenson, Native Village of Shishmaref Johnson Eningowuk, Native Village of Shishmaref IRACouncil Reuben Weyiouanna, Native Village of Shishmaref Tommy Obruk, Native Village of Shishmaref IRA Council Beth Marino, Oregon State University Curtis Nayokpuk, Shishmaref Native Corporation Darlene Turner, Shishmaref Native Corporation Freda Eningowuk, Shishmaref Native Corporation Molly Shell, Shishmaref Native Corporation Robbie Ningeulook, Shishmaref Native Corporation Stanley Tocktoo, Shishmaref Native Corporation Glen Price, Attorney to Shishmaref Native Corporation Christy Miller, Tetra Tech David Williams, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Kristine Tapio-Harper, U.S. Department of Agriculture,Natural Resources Conservation Service Bill Zachares, U.S. Department of Housing and UrbanDevelopment (HUD), Office of Native American Programs Toni Morse, U.S. HUD Jim Atkinson, U.S. Department of the Interior, NationalPark Service Autumn Harry, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) Sarah McLarnon, U.S. EPA Tami Fordham, U.S. EPA Amy Holman, U.S. National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration Jackie Schaeffer, WH Pacific
Shishmaref Strategic Management PlanExecutive SummaryShishmaref is a traditional Inupiat village with a fishing and subsistence lifestyle. The community islocated on Sarichef Island, a barrier island approximately 0.25 mile wide and about 3 miles long, but onlyone-third of the island is developable. The island was formed by frozen sandy soils, which aresusceptible to significant erosion. The primary erosion hazards are wave and slough erosion, sea icegouging, and slumping resulting from melting permafrost. The entire community is susceptible toerosion, and the underlying permafrost is melting. According to the local hazard mitigation plan, “theeffects of climate change are expected to add to natural hazards including flooding in coastal areas. Assea level rises and the offshore ice pack retreats, more coastal flooding can be expected.”Government agencies consider Shishmaref to be one of four communities in immediate need ofrelocation (GAO 2009), and the State of Alaska Immediate Action Workgroup included it in the six toppriority communities referenced in this document as “at-risk communities.” 1 A clear plan of action withwidespread community and agency support will increase Shishmaref’s chances of receiving futurefunding to relocate the community.The community voted to relocate in May 1973 and again in July 2002. While the community has pursuedrelocation since then, several events have caused the relocation efforts to lose momentum (NRCS 2003).The relocation site proposed in the 1970s was determined to be on permafrost-rich ground andunsuitable for development. A school built in 1977 was an important infrastructure investment in thecommunity that they did not want to abandon. The community is currently undertaking a study toidentify a suitable site for relocation. Pending the results of the study, the community will decide if theywill continue to pursue relocation or adopt a“defend in place” approach.Over the past 20 years, Shishmaref hasexperienced several erosive storms. Forexample, during a storm in October 1997, 30feet of the north shore was eroded. As a result,14 homes and the National Guard Armory wereforced to relocate. After additional stormsforced the relocation of 5 other homes, thecommunity voted again in July 2002 to relocatethe entire community.What is resilience?This Strategic Management Plan (SMP) will provide the “blueprint” for how the community and agencieswill proceed to make Shishmaref a more resilient community.The term “resilience” is defined for the purposes of the SMP as the following (DCCED 2012):1The Immediate Action Workgroup is a workgroup of the Alaska Governor’s Sub-cabinet on Climate Change.ES-1 P a g e
Shishmaref Strategic Management PlanResilience is the capability to anticipate risk, limit impact, and bounce back rapidlythrough survival, adaptability, evolution, and growth in the face of turbulent change. Aresilient community is not only prepared to help prevent or minimize the loss or damageto life, property and the environment, but also it has the ability to “bounce back,” i.e.,quickly return citizens to work, reopen businesses, and restore other essential servicesneeded for a full and swift economic recovery.Creating a resilient community requires developing a new way of approaching issues, engaging a diverserange of stakeholders, integrating the planning process across disciplines and levels of government, andcoordinating available funding with resilience needs. A resilient community has five basic dimensions: Political and government systems that promote leadership, inclusive decision making,stakeholder engagement, and integrated planning;Environment that provides resources, does not worsen hazards, and enhances quality of life;Social/culture connection that creates a community identify, ties community residents together,honors their heritage, and promotes a willingness to accept other cultures;Robust economy that provides employment opportunities, financial well-being, and economicprosperity; andInfrastructure that meets basic needs, provides critical community services, reduces communityvulnerability, and is within the community’s ability to operate and maintain.SMP Planning ProcessThe SMP provides a framework to accomplish Shishmaref’s goal of a more resilient community. The SMPprocess was performed in two phases. Phase 1 focused on issue identification, review of backgroundinformation, development of guiding principles, and the creation of a Background Planning Report.Phase 2 focused on identifying the strategic actions to address the issues identified in Phase 1. Phase 2 isdocumented in the SMP.Many residents of Shishmaref, along with representatives from local, regional, state, and federalagencies and organizations, contributed to the creation of the SMP. They participated in communitymeetings, agency meetings, completed surveys, and provided feedback to community leadership. A listof participants in the Shishmaref Interagency Working Group can be found in Appendix A. Additionalinformation about community involvement can be found in Appendix B.VisionDuring Phase 1, based on community input, the following Vision Statement was developed to providedirection to the SMP process.Shishmaref is a safe and resilient community. We want to be a viable community that respectsand honors our Inupiat culture and traditional values. We will work together and with partnersto develop projects and policies to protect our residents, infrastructure, natural environment,and subsistence resources. We will preserve and enhance our community for us and futuregenerations.ES-2 P a g e
Shishmaref Strategic Management PlanGuiding PrinciplesGuiding principles provide the overall direction for the Shishmaref SMP. Combined with the VisionStatement, they are the foundation for the SMP and provide a context for decision making so thatlimited capital resources can be maximized. The guiding principles were developed based oninformation from a literature review and community input. These principles will be used to helpShishmaref achieve its goals, as well as to evaluate potential actions, which should be consistent withthe guiding principles.The SMP’s guiding principles are: Residents must be safe from natural hazards and growing threats of flooding and erosion.Respect and honor each person’s views and ideas.Make decisions openly and as a community. Everyone’s participation is valuable, as each personbrings a different insight, perspective, and knowledge.Include local input in the process.Protect the natural environment.Respect our traditional culture.Use funds wisely.Develop in a manner that strengthens the community.Encourage local hire.Reasons to Develop a Strategic Management PlanThe SMP identifies what activities the community needs to pursue, who is responsible for each actionitem, when an action should occur, what scale of financial resources are needed, and what entities canassist with implementation of the action item. Reasons to develop the SMP include: Establish priorities – What should we be working on and what should we work on first?Simplify decision making – When faced with new ideas and potential projects, communityleadership can use the SMP to determine if an idea or project helps implement the vision and isconsistent with guiding principles.Maintain focus – This makes it easier to say no to items that may distract from the community’sobjectives.Lend credibility to the actions – The SMP demonstrates that the community and otherstakeholders are organized and have thought about their future. Funding entities often want tosee this.Enhance communication – The SMP allows everyone to see where the community is going andhow the action items will be achieved.Promote efficiency – Efficiency will save time, energy, and resources in the long run.Create accountability – Accountability shows what entity is responsible for each item.ES-3 P a g e
Shishmaref Strategic Management PlanThe process used to develop the Shishmaref’s SMP included the five steps outlined below.Development of Strategic Management PlanIdentification of IssuesThe development of the SMP plan started with the identification of issues in Phase 1 of the project. Thekey resiliency-related issues identified in Shishmaref include: Lack of/Inadequate Community InfrastructureInadequate HousingJobs and Economic DevelopmentExtend and Maintain SeawallLack of Evacuation Shelter/Place of RefugeFundingStrategic Focus AreasBased on the issues identified in Phase 1, strategic focus areas were identified. Strategic focus areasexpand on the vision and start to create a structure for how to achieve the vision. The followingstrategic focus areas were identified: Adaptable Built EnvironmentSafe and Healthy HousingJobs and Economic DevelopmentES-4 P a g e
Shishmaref Strategic Management Plan Proactive Emergency ManagementStrengthened Traditional CultureLeadership for the FutureRelocationOtherPreliminary Planning ScheduleBased on the strategic focus areas and the known issues, a preliminary planning schedule was created.First, the project team identified action items that helped implement the vision and were consistentwith guiding principles. Each action item was then identified as short-term, medium-term, or long-termdepending on when the action was likely to be needed and the likely availability of funding. Thepreliminary planning schedule was then refined based on community and agency input.Work Breakdown StructureThe preliminary planning schedule was refined into a comprehensive work breakdown structure (WBS)framework as a means to implement Shishmaref’s resiliency vision and allow them to “defend in place.”A WBS is used to break down a project into manageable actions. It helps with project organization,assists with assigning responsibilities, helps with estimating costs and scheduling, and can help projectstakeholders by providing further definition and detail of each task.This WBS includes a discussion of strategic focus areas and lays out action items that should beundertaken by the community and their partners over the next 20 years.Identification of Imminent and Critical ActionsIn an emergency, the highest priority is the health and safety of community residents. This involvesmaking sure procedures, training, and equipment are available for a safe evacuation or to shelter inplace. Imminent actions are those actions the community needs in place today to protect people fromharm during a hazard event. The imminent actions identified for Shishmaref are:Decision Regarding RelocationShishmaref recently completed a site feasibility study and now must decide if they will relocate to one ofthe three potential sites or protect in place for the long-term survival of the community. The communityis scheduled to vote on this issue in July 2016. The results of this vote will provide a clear vision ofShishmaref’s future so the community can start concentrating on implementing their preferred choice.Emergency Drills and ExercisesEmergency drills and exercises provide an opportunity to practice aspects of an emergency plan,allowing people to become familiar with what is expected of them during an emergency and helpidentify whether the plan meets community needs or if changes need to be made.Critical actions are those action items that, if not completed in 5 years, will result in a negative impacton community safety. Implementation of critical actions should be undertaken immediately with a goalof completing or substantially completing the action within 5 years. The identified critical actions areES-5 P a g e
Shishmaref Strategic Management Planactions that are especially important for increasing community resiliency now. Criteria for identifyingcritical actions were: Does it save lives?Does it protect property?Can it be re-used or re-purposed in another location?Additional considerations for identifying critical actions were: Does it address immediate priorities (e.g., food, water, energy, shelter)?How does it reflect community priorities? Does it support “Shelter in Place?”Is there funding available?Can it be fully implemented within the next 5 years?The critical actions identified are summarized below. For information on the other action itemsidentified, see Section 3 of the SMP.CRITICAL ACTION – Water and Sewer UpgradesThe majority of homes in Shishmaref rely on hauling water from the washeteria and honey buckets.Water and sewer upgrades were considered critical by the community to improve their quality of lifeand public health. Based on community needs, three priority water and sewer upgrades have beenidentified: improved delivery of drinking water and sewage disposal services, increased water supply,and protection of the sewage lagoon. Improving the delivery of drinking water and sewage disposalservices does not mean installing a piped water and sewer system. Globally, a wide variety of innovativedecentralized water and sewer systems have been developed that, if implemented, could meetShishmaref’s basic sanitation needs. Shishmaref’s existing water supply and storage tanks are in poorcondition and do not have capacity to meet community needs. Shishmaref sometimes has to rationwater, which has a negative health impact. Additional water storage would allow residents to bettermeet their needs and reduce sanitation-related illnesses. Shishmaref’s sewage lagoon is vulnerable tostorm surge and erosion. A breach of the sewage lagoon would present a substantial health risk; it needsto be protected.CRITICAL ACTION – Evacuation CenterOne of the biggest concerns in Shishmaref is having a safe place to be during storms. The school andchurch serve as evacuation shelters; however, they may not be large enough to house everyone. Theymay also be impacted during extreme storms. The church also does not have running water, emergencysupplies, and other necessities, which limits its usefulness as an emergency shelter. Residents need anevacuation center so they have a safe place to use during and after a storm or other emergency.CRITICAL ACTION – Coastal Flood AnalysisA coastal flood analysis will identify the likelihood and severity of coastal flooding in Shishmaref. Theresults of the analysis will help Shishmaref with future planning efforts, studies, and projects.CRITICAL ACTION – Seawall – Phases 3 and 4ES-6 P a g e
Shishmaref Strategic Management PlanThe remaining phases of the seawall need to be constructed to protect the northern edge andsouthwest portion of Shishmaref.CRITICAL ACTION – Improved HousingAccess to safe, quality, and affordable housing is vital for any community. Community residents haveexpressed a need to improve the housing in Shishmaref to address overcrowding, energy efficiency,affordability, and poor structural conditions.CRITICAL ACTION – Traditional KnowledgeAlaska Natives have a unique understanding of the connections between people and their environment.Shishmaref should work with its partner agencies to ensure that traditional knowledge is notdiscounted. Rather, Shishmaref needs to encourage the blending of traditional knowledge and westernscience so that all organizations can develop a better understanding of climate change and communityimpacts.CRITICAL ACTION – Leadership DevelopmentLeaders must have the foresight to see potential challenges, plan for the future, and be involved indecision-making processes on behalf of the community. Shishmaref has expressed the need for moreleadership development opportunities to ensure future community leaders have the necessary skills towork with community residents, government agencies, and others to implement their vision of aresilient Shishmaref.CRITICAL ACTION – Improve Government-to-Government RelationsImproving government-to-government relations will help elicit trust among different governmentlevels—tribal council, city, regional, and state—as well as various state agencies. Continued interactionand correspondence will help ensure that everyone is on the same page with the same ideas, and norelationships are destroyed through the process.Each critical action is described in additional detail, along with its responsible and potential/coordinatingparties, timeframe, estimated cost, current status, and reference, in Section 3 of the SMP.Strategic Management Plan OrganizationThe SMP is organized by strategic focus area. Within each focus area, critical action items are identifiedfirst, followed by short-, medium-, and long-term action items. For each action item, the followingdetails were identified: Responsible Party – Which agency or organization has the primary responsibility forchampioning the action?Potential Partners/Coordination – What entities may be willing to partner with the responsibleparty and how can the partnership be coordinated?Timeframe for Implementation – When is the action item needed?Estimated Cost – What is the planning level cost estimate (when available)?Current Status – What is the current status of the project?ES-7 P a g e
Shishmaref Strategic Management Plan Reference – What is the source of the action item, if it originated from another communityplan?The action items have been identified through the Background Planning Report and the first twoInteragency Working Group Meetings. Completing the items on the list does not automatically meanShishmaref is a resilient community; resilience is a process of continual improvement. The SMP is a workin progress, and should be kept visible and revised periodically to meet changing community needs. Asthe community makes progress on current action items, the SMP should be updated to removecompleted action items and add new ones.Actions will trigger other actions and opportunities to defend in place. The timelines are not meant to bea mandatory schedule; they are guidelines for future planning efforts. Implementation of actions willdepend on availability of resources and community priorities.Strategic Management Plan OverviewNext StepsThe next step is for the community to lead the implementation of the SMP. Specific steps include: Accountability – Having a plan is not the same as implementing the plan. To be successful,Shishmaref needs to identify specific people to be responsible for each action item. Theseindividuals should report back to the community on a regular basis.Monitoring – Shishmaref should decide how they want to monitor and update the SMP. TheSMP is a living document to help the community become more resilient. The community shouldES-8 P a g e
Shishmaref Strategic Management Plan work with their partners to assess the plan and update it at least annually. Keep the plan fluid –adapt to changes. Don’t be afraid to change the plan if needed.Support – Gain support to implement action items from existing and new partners.Communication – Keep people informed of progress. Shishmaref should share with residentsand agency partners the progress they have made in implementing the plan.Celebration – As action items are completed, or at substantial milestones, celebrate theseaccomplishments. Celebrations can help keep everyone excited and engaged.ES-9 P a g e
Shishmaref Strategic Management PlanThis page intentionally left blank.ES-10 P a g e
Shishmaref Strategic Management PlanTable of Contents123Introduction . 11.1What is resilience? . 21.2SMP Planning Process . 31.3Vision. 41.4Guiding Principles . 5Reasons to Develop a Strategic Management Plan . 72.1Identification of Issues . 82.2Strategic Focus Areas . 82.3Preliminary Planning Schedule . 92.4Work Breakdown Structure . 92.5Identification of Imminent and Critical Actions . 9Shishmaref’s Strategic Management Plan . 133.1Adaptable Built Environment . 163.1.1CRITICAL ACTION – Water and Sewer Upgrades . 163.1.2Energy . 213.1.3Fuel Tank Assessment . 233.1.4Water/Wastewater . 243.1.5Honey-Bucket Ordinance . 253.1.6Washeteria Expansion. 263.1.7Implement Sanitation Master Plan Recommendations . 263.1.8Transportation . 273.1.9Construct Community Streets with Dust Control Surfacing . 273.1.10Construct Barge Landing and Boat Harbor Facility . 273.1.11Improve Winter Travel . 283.1.12Install Automatic Identification System . 293.1.13Additional Snow Removal Equipment . 293.1.14Airport Improvements . 293.1.15Street Lighting . 293.1.16Education . 313.1.17School Upgrades . 31i Page
Shishmaref Strategic Management Plan3.1.18Health . 313.1.19Health Clinic Expansion . 313.1.20Other . 323.2Safe and Sanitary Housing . 353.2.1CRITICAL ACTION – Housing Improvements . 353.2.2Housing Needs Assessment . 383.2.3Develop Housing Strategy . 383.2.4Housing Upgrades . 393.2.5Low-Income/Elder Housing . 393.2.6Housing Standards . 403.2.7Construct Additional Housing . 403.3Jobs and Economic Development Opportunities. 423.3.1Community Asset Mapping .
Management (DMVA/DHS&EM) Scott Nelson, Alaska DMVA/DHS&EM . Alexa Green, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities Jed Drolet, Alaska Energy Authority (AEA) . Alaska Housing Finance Corporation Denise Pollock, Alaska Institute for Justice (AIJ) Robin Bronen, AIJ Jon Isaacs, AECOM Scott Simmons .