CHAPTER IITHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKA. Definition of Teaching WritingAccording to Santos and McKay is teaching writing should haveideological. On the other hand, Sarah Benesch said that „‟ all frominstruction are ideological”. She point out that in its attempts” to adaptstudents to status quo” by presenting the demands of literacy as „‟ positiveartifacts of normative academic culture. We get the point that as educatorsmust have ideological position to deliver the message and to know the roleplay of educators that relate on the subject. Ideological make the teacherunderstand how to teaching writing, so the students can understand easilywith their task.Closely allied to ideology comes theory and our views of language,the nature of language learning, writing and the nature of learning ofcomposition even if we never articulate our teory to ourselves, they becomeapparent to other in our syllabus and choice of material and activities. As ateacher we should choice the material of writing that appropriate with ourculture. If there is correlation between the culture and material it will becomethe meaningful learning. The students get the sense and able interpret with6

7own selves. On the hand process writing is commitment of content, fluency,personal voice and revising1.Murphy‟s said that „‟the strong teacher is reflective teacher and partof necessary background preparation for becoming teacher of writing is torecognize that every teacher brings to the classroom philosophy of teachingand set of beliefs about learning. Teaching writing take place : studentproduce written text that are expected to exhibit increasingly advanced levelsof proficiency as the students writer progress through a curriculum andteachers must make choices about hoe various earning experience willpromote the goal.Brown states that as the member of literate community, people needto learn how to write. In writing learning, the teachers need to give specialtreatment in order to facilitate the students in learning process. The teachershould give more attention to the students in the process of writing sincewriting can also be considered as a discovering process. The guidance fromthe teacher is necessary for students on several steps in the writing process2.B. Genre of writingGenre can be defined in term both of intended from and the intendedfunction of the writing. From is writing product. The function are term of1Jack Richard And willy, Methodology in Language Teaching (USA : CambridgeUniversity Press, 2002) 306-3082Nada Raudhotul Muthohharoh, Using Feedback in Teaching writing DescriptiveText, Loquen, Volume 11,Number 01,( June 2018) p.44

8communicative function, as a traditional language teaching (describing,inviting and apologizing), terms discourse mode, traditional in writinginstruction(narration, exposition, argumentation and discription)3.1. Academic writing : papers, general subjectreport essays, compositionsacademically focused journals, short answer test responses, technicalresportses, techical reports, these, dissertations.2. Job-related writing : massages, letters/emails, reports, schedules, labels,sign advertisements, announcements manual.3. Personal writing : latters, emails, greeting card, invitations, massages,calendar entries, shopping list, reminders financial documents, medicalreports, immigration documents, diaries, personal journal fiction such asshort story, poetry4.C. Types of Writing Performance1. Imitative : there are some basic learner that the students must have suchas basic task of writing letters, words punctuation, and sentences. Twoof components most central to any writing course that the writingassignment that students are asked to do and the method of feedbackprovide to the learner on their evolving writing skills. On the one hand,3Sara Cushing Weigle, Assessing writing, (United Kingdom : CambridgeUniversity press, 2001) 95-964H Douglas Brown, Language Assessment Principle and Classroom practice(California: longman.) 219-220

9there are serval skills in writing such as handwriting, spelling,punctuation, well formed sentences, paragraph and text it calledmechanic5.a) Teaching Hand writingBecause of everything use digital media, so some students getdifficultness to write by hand. Lately a lot of writing is base oncompter. We don‟t need write with our hand but we attempt toexplore handwriting with the media postcard. If students get troublewith aspect of handwriting that the teacher follow two stages such asrecognition and production of letter.b) Teaching punctuationBefore we write text, we should attention of punctuation suchas capital letter and coma. Ex. : Robet, Clara, Thomas. ratepuncuation (spelling) does not seem to be so great. Features such ascapital latter and apostrophes are frequently left out.c) Teaching coping, sentence, paragraph, and text.Copying is activities of students that write the model of wordfromthe teacher. Copiying is make students have handwriting skills545Jeremy Harmer, How To Teaching Writing, (Malaysia : Six Impression, 2007) 44-

10and punctuation. Next is sentence, it‟s important in writingacademic. Making sentences with gramamr determinegood writer. On the one hand, paragraph is not escape from the text.Subtitution drill is one way to produce that encouragement thestudents to write paragraph with only read the text.2. Intensive (contrled) : beyond the fundamentals or immitave writing areskills in producing apporopriate vocabulary within context, collocationsand idioms and correct grammatical features up the length of a sentence.3. Responsive : this assessment take to performance discourse level,connecting sentence into paraggraph and creating logically connectedsewuence. Genre of writing include narrative, descriptions, short reportand responsive reading, it emphasize on context and meaning.4. Extensive: extensive implies successful management of all the processesand strategies of writing all purpose, up to the length of an essay, paper,major research project report, thesis. Writer focus on achieving apurpose organizing, organizing developing idea, using support.D. Techniques for getting started1. BrainstormingStudents have previous knowledge or information as a draft to be atopic. Sharing with friend about hot issue or news to be the topic before

11start to write. Brainstorming is to create creativity that relate reference orsource.2. ListingListing can be quite and essentially individual activity. The students isencouraged to produce lengthy list a possible of all the main idea andsubcategories that come main as he or she think about the topic at hand.3. ClusteringClustering is key word to get idea that use words or phrase. Completedcluster can look like spokes on wheel or any other pattern of connectedlines depending on how individual association or relate to other6.So the write choose brainstorming for pre write in academic writing.Brainstorming is create and exprese the idea. They are creative toconstruct sentence by sentence be good paragraph. Brainstorming ishelpful for students.E. Goal settingResponding to students writing has the general goal of respondingmethodologies which can foster improvement, they need to know howmeasure or recognize improvement, they occur. As with so many aspectsof teaching writing, one of them is setting goal. Setting goal is the6Marianne Celce – Muria, Teaching English As As Second Or Foreign Languagethird Edition, (USA : Dewey Publishing Data 2001) 219-224

12teacher focus on implementing a variety of response type and trainingstudents to maximize the insight of prior feedback on future writingoccasions.Shaping feedback, students must also be trained to use the feedbackin ways that will improve their writing, be it on the next draft ofparticular paper or on another assignment in two relate case studiesanalyzing a very large number of marginal and end comments written byexperienced.According to Richard and Renandya the proses writing as aclassroom activity incorporates the four basic writing stage planning,drafting (writing), revising (redrafting) and editing and there other stagesexternally imposed on students by the teacher, namely, responding(sharing), evaluating and post-writing7F. Narrative Text1. Definisi of Narrative TextNarrative is art that the function of the relationship betweentwo worlds: the fictional world created by the author and the “real”world, the apprehendable universe. In some narratives the authortries to control the reader‟s response more fully than in others.7Ila Amalia “Fostering Student” Writing Skill Through Peer Feedback Activity: ACase Study at Uin Smh Banten” , Loquen, Volume XI, Number 01, (june,2018). P.5

13Narrative art requires a story and a storyteller. In the relationshipbetween the teller and the audience natural basis of narrative art. Inany example of narrative art there are, broadly speaking, three pointsof view those of the characters, the narrator, and the audience8.According to young black Americans, William Laboy oralnarrative have the six parts or stages of this pattern such as abstract,Orientation, Complicating action, Evaluation, Result or resolutionnarratives. In written fiction, the „abstract‟ is usually provided by thetitle. The orientation is to be found at all it most often found at thestart (it is the “who, what, where, when, of the story), The„complicating action‟ unsettles the initial balance and prepares the„resolution‟ the „coda‟, usually placed at the end of the narrative, iswhere things are rounded off where the „(implied) author‟, or the„narrator‟. Parts company with the „reader‟9.Narrative is imaginative story or fiction that aim to entertainpeople. Narrative is consist of verbal and visual sign, The study ofnarrative is narratology. According to Wales “ Basically a story, ofhappenings or events, either real or imaginary, which the narratorconsiders interesting or important. Narratives are most commonly8Robert Scholes, dkk., The Nature of Narrative, (New York : Oxford UniversityPress, 2006) 82-859Jane Austen, Narrative Techniques A Stylistic and Pragmatic Analysis, (England :Ashgate Publishing Limited A, 2009) 13-15

14narratives are most commonly narrated in words, in speech (as inoral literature and jokes) or (chiefly) in writing; but they can beenacted dramatically on stage, or visualized in the images in theimages of film and gesture of mime10.Narrative text is the story to tell the listener or reader thatusing media include image, sound, or other combinations11. Thegeeric structure of narrative text are orientation, complication,resolutation and reorientation. The grammar of narrative are usuallysimple past tense and past perfect tense.2. Kinds of NarrativeWriting of fiction is easy for students, Furthermore, they arefamiliar with genre and they have experience before. Jerome Brunerexplains in Acts of Meaning, “stories make „reality‟ a mitigatedreality”. Children are predisposed naturally and by circumstance tostart their narrative carreers in that spirit. And we equip them withmodels and procedural tool kits for perfecting those skills. Withoutthose skills we could never endure the conficts and contradictions10Steven Cohan And Linda M. Shires, Telling Stories A theoretical analysis ofnarrative Fiction, (Francis : British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data, 2001) 54-5611Dan melntyre, point of view in plays. A cognitive stylistic approach to viewpointin drama and other text-types, (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2006) 95

15that socia life generates”. Encourage students to consider thefollowing forms of fictions12.a) Legend : legend is one of narrative text that to tell thereaders or listener about human life history. Legend as sameof folktale. It‟s short history. In Indonesia there are legendsuch as Sangkuriang, Malin kundang, Danau toba,Tangkuban perahu.b) Fable: the short story that the actor is animal like human life.They can speak and action. In fable there is important valuesas we as audience. Fable such as : story monkey andcrocodile. Smartest parot, mousedeer and crocodile.c) Fairytale: the story of imagination that the actor is not in thereal life. Sometimes fairytale is appropriate to young learner.The excample of fairytale are Cinderella, snow white, beautyand the beast, the story of Rapunzel.d) Science fiction: According to Basil Devenport. 1995,Science fiction is fiction based upon some imagineddevelopment of science, or upon the extrapolation of atendency in society. Science fiction is taht class of prose12Joyce Armstrong Carroll And Edward E. Wilson, Acts Of Teaching How ToTeaching. How To Teach Writing, 111

16narrative treating of a situation that coud not arise in theworld we know. Some excamples of science fiction are: Tothe Moon from the Earth by Jules Ver, Starship Trooper byRobet Heinlein, A Space Odyssey by Arthur C. Clark.3. The example of Narrative text especially fabel textThe lion and the mouseOne when a lion, the king of the jungle was asleep, a little mousebegan running up and down oh him this soon awakened the lionwho placed his huge paw on the mouse and opened his big jawsto swallow him.“pardon o king” cried the little mouse“forgive me this time I shill never forget your kidness. And whoknows, I may be able to do you a good turn one of these days”The lion was so tickled b idea of the mouse able to help him taathe lifed his paw and him go.Sometimes later, a few hunters captured the lion and tied him toa tree. After they went in search of a wagon, to take him to thezoo just the litte mouse happened t pass by on seeing the lion „splight, he run up to him and gnawed away the ropes that boundhim, the king of the jungle “ was I not right” said the little mousevery happy to help the lion.

17G. Comic Strips1. Definisi of Comic StripsBefor discuss about definition of comic strips, it is important todefine what comic is. According to Masdiono,comic is a story in theform of pictures13. Comics are different from picture stories. In thepicure stories, pictures are only an illustrarion, the complement of story,but in the comics. The text is the complement; as dialog or as narrationof the story. Comic are media visualwith a group of picturesand words.In addition, McCloud says that a comic is cogtiguous pictures arrangedbased on a story plot that aims to give information and get aestheticappreciation from the reders14 . Explains that a comic is one of the mediawhich combines static which usually splits into panels and storiesconveyed through texts.Otherwise comic strips are one of the specific styles of the comics.Smith explains that comic strips are specific styles of comic whichusually have one to four panels. They commonly appearin thenewspaper comic strips usually center on the same cast yet the storiesare meant to stand on their own ; the readers are not necessary to beaware of the previous strips to understand the current one. Comic-strips1314Toni Masdiono, 14 Jurus Membuat Komik, (Jakarta : creative Media,1998) 11Scoot McCloud, Understanding Comics, The Invisible Art. (New York: HarperPerennial 1993) 9.

18is defined in this study as a series of pictures inside boxes that tell astory. According to John Wiley and Sons in journal naf‟an Tarihoranand Komariyah there is definition of comic-strips: 1) A sequence ofserval related cartoon drawing typically arranged in a horizontal strips.2) A series of such strips, typically about a set of rewriting characters,regulerl published as in the comic section of a new paper152. Components of Comic StripsFurhermore comic strips, as one in the comic books, have someaspect. According to Masdiono, the components of comics are panel,gang, narration, balloon text and souds effects16 . Frist,it is the panel.Panel is a place where one act of picture and story is located. Panel hasits aim for making the story line of comics. Thus, in order to make agood story, every panel gas to be placed orderly based on the story linethen a good order of panel is from right to left and from top to down.Next, tiis gang, gang is a space between two panels. gang has function asseparation between two idea or two acts in story. Thrid, it is a narration.It is the dialog inside the balloon texts. Narration is really important partof the story, because bb it contains the story of the comics. Next part is15Naf‟an Tarihoran and Komariyah, using comic strip in teaching readingcomprehension, Loquen, Vol. 6 no. 2 ( july – December 2013) p.11916Toni Masdiono, 14 Jurus Membuat Komik, p.13

19balloon text, readers can detect the expression of the dialogs. The lastpart is a sound effect. Just like the name, a sound effect performs thevoices out of the dialogs, like the voices of nature, the voices of things,Etc.3. Comic Strips for WritingNowadays, it is not unusual activities that comic strips are used for anEnglish classroom. Some experts state some advantages of using comicstrips especially in the prewriting stage. Comic strips enable students toidentify the elements of a story through the presented visual art anddialogues. They consist of enough words and expressions that can helpstudents to construct sentences. They also provide contextual clues tothe meaning of written narrative. In line with that, Vukoja states thatthrough the use of comic strips in the prewriting activity, students canexplore the structural devices of a story ( plotlines, characterdevelopment, setting, and themes)17 . Moreover Fay state that reasonsof using comics in the classroom are their visual appeal, efficiency, andpower of massage. Comic strips can spur students‟ interest to writeEnglish18 . It is much more engaging way to practice language and17Tanya vukoja, Cross Genre Approach to Short Stories, on February 10, 20.2019.18Fay, D. 2009. Students Storytelling Through sequential Art. English TeachingForum Jurnal,3, XXXXIV.

20creative writing than simply writing them out as words alone on a blankpage. Comic also put learners at ease with the material. Comics strips donot make learners feel alienated and distant from the material bystruggling with language. A reader‟s at comprehension is greatlyreduced.

Tangkuban perahu. b) Fable: the short story that the actor is animal like human life. They can speak and action. In fable there is important values as we as audience. Fable such as : story monkey and crocodile. Smartest parot, mousedeer and crocodile. c) Fairytale: the story of imagination that the actor is not in the real life.