ManagementDeadCover3/30/0610:01 AMPage 1World HealthOrganization

ManagementDeadCover3/30/0610:01 AMPage 2Management of the dead is one of the most difficult aspects of disasterresponse. It has profound and long-lasting consequences for survivorsand communities. Globally, disasters claim thousands of lives each year.However, care of the deceased is often overlooked in disaster planningand the absence of guidance for first responders has recently been highlighted following several large disasters.Immediately after a major disaster, identifying and disposing of humanremains are often done by local communities. Forensic specialists maynot be available or unable to rapidly access the affected area. There aresimple steps that first responders can take to ensure the dead are treated in a dignified way and that can assist in their identification.This Field Manual for First Responders presents simple recommendations for non-specialists to manage the recovery, basic identification,storage and disposal of dead bodies following disasters. It also makessuggestions about providing support to family members and communicating with the public and the media.This manual will be useful during the immediate response to a disasterand where forensic response is unavailable. Furthermore, it will be useful for those preparing mass fatality disaster plans. The recommendations are relevant for local, regional and national authorities as well as fornon-governmental organizations.The principles outlined in this document are being implemented and promoted by a variety of organizations, including the Pan American HealthOrganization, the World Health Organization, the InternationalCommittee of the Red Cross and the International Federation of RedCross and Red Crescent Societies.This document can be viewed on Internet (click on Publications Catalog)525 Twenty-third Street, N.W.Washington, D.C. 20037, [email protected]

Management of Dead Bodiesafter Disasters:A Field Manual for First RespondersEditorsOliver Morgan—Honorary Research Fellow,London School of Hygiene and Tropical MedicineMorris Tidball-BinzForensic Coordinator, Assistance Division, International Committee of the Red CrossDana van Alphen—Regional Advisor,Pan American Health Organization/World Health OrganizationPROS A LUTEOOPSVI M U NDPAHOINArea on Emergency Preparednessand Disaster ReliefWorld HealthOrganizationWashington D.C., 2006

PAHO HQ Library Cataloguing-in-PublicationMorgan, Oliver -- edManagement of dead bodies after disasters: a field manual for first responders.Washington, D.C: PAHO, 2006.ISBN 92 75 12630 5I. Title II. Tidball-Binz, Morris -- edIII. Van Alphen, Dana -- ed1. CADAVER2. NATURAL DISASTERS3. DISASTER EMERGENCIES4. DISASTER PLANNINGNLM WA 840 Pan American Health Organization, 2006A publication of the Area on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief of the PanAmerican Health Organization, the World Health Organization, and the InternationalCommittee of the Red Cross.The views expressed, the recommendations made, and the terms employed in this publicationdo not necessarily reflect the current criteria or policies of PAHO/WHO or of its MemberStates.The Pan American Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce ortranslate, in part or in full, this publication. Applications and inquiries should be addressed tothe Area on Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief, Pan American Health Organization,525 Twenty-third Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037, USA; fax: (202) 775-4578; e-mail:[email protected] publication has been made possible through the financial support of the Division ofHumanitarian Assistance, Peace and Security of the Canadian International DevelopmentAgency (HAPS/CIDA), the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the United States Agencyfor International Development (OFDA/USAID), the United Kingdom’s Department forInternational Development (DFID) and the European Commission Humanitarian Aid Office(ECHO).

TABLE OF CONTENTSForeword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VContributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VII1.Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33.Infectious Disease Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54.Body Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75.Storage of Dead Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96.Identification of Dead Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137.Information Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198.Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Dead Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219.Communications and the Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2310. Support to Families and Relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2511. Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27Annex 1: Dead Bodies Identification Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Annex 2: Missing Persons Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Annex 3: Sequential Numbers for Unique Referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41Annex 4: Body Inventory Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42Annex 5: Supporting Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43Annex 6: International Organizations Involved in the Development of this Document. . . .44III

FOREWORDManagement of the dead is one of the most difficult aspects of disaster response, andnatural disasters, in particular, can cause a large number of deaths. Although the humanitarian community has been aware of these challenges for over 20 years, the massiveloss of life following the South Asian tsunami in 2004 highlighted limitations in ourcurrent capacity to respond. Several large natural disasters in 2005, including HurricaneKatrina in the United States, Hurricane Stan in Central America, and the earthquake inNorthern Pakistan and India, further reveal the need for practical guidance.Natural disasters frequently overwhelm local systems that care for the deceased.Consequently, the responsibility for the immediate response falls on local organizations and communities. The absence of specialist advice or mass fatality planningamplifies the problems, often resulting in the mismanagement of human remains.This is significant because the way victims are treated has a profound and long-lasting effect on the mental health of survivors and communities. In addition, correctidentification of the dead has legal significance for inheritance and insurance that canimpact on families and relatives for many years after a disaster.This manual marks an important step toward promoting better treatment of victimsand their families. It recognizes the vital role of local organizations and communitiesand the exceptionally difficult task of managing human remains following disasters.We are pleased that the principles outlined in this document are being implementedand promoted by a variety of organizations, including the Pan American HealthOrganization, the World Health Organization, the International Committee of the RedCross and the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.Mirta Roses PeriagoDirectorPan American Health OrganizationV

CONTRIBUTORSChapter 1IntroductionChapter 2CoordinationChapter 3Infectious Disease RisksChapter 5Storage of Dead BodiesChapter 4Body RecoveryChapter 6Identification of Dead BodiesChapter 7Information ManagementChapter 9Communications and the MediaChapter 8Long-term Storage and Disposalof Dead BodiesChapter 10 Support to Families and RelativesChapter 11 Frequently Asked QuestionsAnnexesDead Bodies Identification FormMissing Persons FormOliver MorganDana van AlphenMorris Tidball-BinzDana van AlphenBoonchai SomboonsookOliver MorganOliver MorganOliver MorganPongruk SribanditmongkolStephen CordnerPongruk SribanditmongkolMorris Tidball-BinzOliver MorganYves EtienneBoyd DentMorris Tidball-BinzMorris Tidball-BinzClaude de Ville de GoyetUte HofmeisterMorris Tidball-BinzVII

Management of Dead Bodies after Disasters: A Field Manual for First RespondersAffiliationsOliver MorganMorris Tidball-BinzDana Van AlphenBoonchai SomboonsookPongruk SribanditmongkolStephen CordnerYves EtienneBoyd DentClaude de Ville de GoyetRicardo PerezUte HofmeisterVIIIHonorary Research Fellow, London School ofHygiene and Tropical Medicine, UKForensic Coordinator, Assistance Division,International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva,SwitzerlandRegional Advisor, Pan American HealthOrganization/World Health OrganizationDeputy Director, Department of Health ServiceSupport, Ministry of Public Health, ThailandAssociate Professor, Department of ForensicMedicine, Chiang Mai University, ThailandDirector, Victoria Institute of Forensic Medicine,AustraliaHead of Assistance Division, InternationalCommittee of the Red Cross, Geneva, SwitzerlandLecturer, University of Technology, Sydney,AustraliaConsultant in Emergency ResponseRegional Advisor (Publications), Pan AmericanHealth Organization/World Health OrganizationForensic Advisor, Assistance Division, InternationalCommittee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerland

1. INTRODUCTIONThis manual has two broad aims: first, to promote the proper and dignified management of dead bodies, and second, to maximize their identification. Following disasters, implementing simple measures early on can significantly improve the opportunity for successful identification. However, after the majority of disasters, the immediate management of human remains is done by local organizations and communitiesand not by specialist teams of national and international experts. Consequently, thismanual focuses on practical recommendations for non-specialists.Immediately after a disaster there is little time to read guidelines, so this manual dedicates one chapter for each key task and uses bullet-points for brevity and clarity.Local coordinators can photocopy and distribute the relevant chapters to individualsresponsible for specific tasks, such as body recovery.Throughout the manual we have chosen to use the term “dead bodies” instead of themore respectful and technically correct term “human remains,” because the term“dead bodies” is less ambiguous for readers whose first language is not English.This manual does not provide a comprehensive framework for forensic investigation.However, following the recommendations will aid the work of forensic specialistswhen they arrive at the scene. These recommendations will also help communities forwhom forensic expertise is unavailable to collect basic information that may aid identification of the deceased. Nevertheless, this manual does not replace the need for specialist forensic identification of victims.1

2. COORDINATIONOverview Immediately after a disaster, emergency response is often chaotic and uncoordinated. Coordination is needed at several levels: local, regional/provincial, and national. Disaster preparedness plans may already have identified a coordination structure. Early coordination is vital for the following tasks:T Manage information and coordinate assessment activities.T Identify required resources (e.g., forensic teams, morgues, body bags, etc.).T Implement a plan of action for the management of dead bodies.T Disseminate accurate information to families and communities about identification of the missing and management of dead bodies.Effective local coordination As soon as possible, and in accordance with existing disaster preparednessplans, identify an agency and name a person to serve as a local coordinatorwith full authority and responsibility for the management of dead bodies (e.g.,local Governor, Police Chief, Military Commander, Mayor). The selection of Medical or Hospital Directors as coordinators should be discouraged as their primary responsibility is the care of the living and injured. Establish a team, within the Emergency Operations Center, to coordinate management of the dead. Include key operational partners such as the military, civildefense, fire service, local emergency or rescue organizations, National RedCross/Red Crescent Society, and local funeral homes, morticians, and coroners, etc.3

Management of Dead Bodies after Disasters: A Field Manual for First Responders Appoint persons to be in charge of one or more of the following tasks and providethem with a copy of the relevant chapter in this manual:T Body recovery (Chapter 4).T Storage (Chapter 5).T Identification (Chapter 6).T Information and communication (Chapters 7, 9 and 11).T Disposal (Chapter 8).T Support for families (Chapter 10).T Logistics (Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 8).Effective regional and national coordination As soon as possible, name a person as a national or regional coordinator and provide him or her with the appropriate authority for the management of dead bodies(e.g. Minister, Governor, Police Chief, Military Commander, Mayor). Refer to the mass fatality section of your disaster response plan or major incidentprocedures manual, if available. Establish a coordination group including key individuals to advise on:T Communications with the public and the media.T Legal issues about identification and death certification.T Technical support for identification and documentation.T Logistical support (e.g., military or police).T Liaison with diplomatic missions, inter-governmental and international organizations (for example, United Nations, World Health Organization,International Committee of the Red Cross, International Federation of RedCross and Red Crescent Societies and INTERPOL).4

3. INFECTIOUSDISEASE RISKSOverview After most natural disasters there is fear that dead bodies will cause epidemics. This belief is wrongly promoted by the media, as well as some medical and disaster professionals. Dead bodies do not cause epidemics after natural disasters. The political pressure brought about by these rumors causes authorities to useunnecessary measures such as rapid mass burials and spraying so-called “disinfectants.” The consequences of mismanagement of the dead include mental distress andlegal problems for relatives of the victims. The surviving population is much more likely to spread disease.Infections and dead bodies Victims of natural disasters are normally killed by injury, drowning, or fire—not by disease. At the time of death, victims are not likely to be sick with epidemic-causinginfections (i.e., plague, cholera, typhoid, and anthrax). A few victims will have chronic blood infections (hepatitis or HIV), tuberculosis, or diarrheal disease. Most infectious organisms do not survive beyond 48 hours in a dead body. Anexception is HIV, which has been found six days postmortem.5

Management of Dead Bodies after Disasters: A Field Manual for First RespondersRisk to the public The risk to the public is negligible because they do not touch dead bodies. There is the potential (but as yet undocumented) risk of drinking water suppliescontaminated by fecal material released from dead bodies.Risk to body handlers Individuals handling human remains have a small risk through contact with bloodand feces (bodies often leak feces after death) from the following:T Hepatitis B and C.T HIV.T Tuberculosis.T Diarrheal disease. Body recovery teams work in hazardous environments (e.g., collapsed buildingsand debris) and may also be at risk of injury and tetanus (transmitted via soil).Safety precautions for body handlers Basic hygiene protects workers from exposure to diseases spread by blood and certain body fluids. Workers should use the following precautions:T Use gloves and boots, if available.T Wash hands with soap and water after handling bodies and before eating.T Avoid wiping face or mouth with hands.T Wash and disinfect all equipment, clothes, and vehicles used for transportationof bodies. Face masks are unnecessary, but should be provided if requested to avoid anxiety. The recovery of bodies from confined, unventilated spaces should be approachedwith caution. After several days of decomposition, potentially hazardous toxicgases can build-up. Time should be allowed for fresh air to ventilate confinedspaces. See Chapter 4 (Body Recovery) for recommendations about the use of body bags.6

4. BODYRECOVERYOverview Body recovery is the first step in managing dead bodies and is usually chaotic anddisorganized. Many different people or groups are involved in body recovery. Communicationand coordination with them is often difficult. This part of the process can be essential for identification and should be read inconjunction with Chapter 6, Identification of Dead Bodies. Body recovery only lasts a few days or weeks, but may be prolonged followingearthquakes or very large disasters.The aim of body recovery Rapid retrieval is a priority because it aids identification and reduces the psychological burden on survivors. Recovery of bodies should not interrupt other interventions aimed at helping survivors.The workforce Body recovery is often done spontaneously by a large number of individuals,including:T Surviving community members.T Volunteers (e.g., National Red Cross/Red Crescent Societies).T Search and rescue teams.T Military, police or civil defense personnel.7

Management of Dead Bodies after Disasters: A Field Manual for First Responders Coordination of these groups is needed to encourage the use of procedures andhealth and safety precautions recommended in this manual.Methods and procedures Bodies should be placed in body bags. If these are unavailable, use plastic sheets,shrouds, bed sheets, or other locally available material. Body parts (e.g., limbs) should be treated as individual bodies. Recovery teamsshould not attempt to match the body parts at the disaster scene. Body recovery teams work most effectively in two groups: one to take bodies to anearby collection point and a second to take them to identification or storage areas. Noting the place and date where the body was found helps identification (seeAnnex 1, Dead Bodies Form). Personal belongings, jewelry, and documents should not be separated from the corresponding remains during recovery, but only during the identification phase (seeChapter 6, Identification of Dead Bodies). Stretchers, body bags, and flatbed trucks or tractor-trailers can be used to transportbodies. Ambulances should not be used for this purpose as they are best used tohelp the living.Health and safety Body recovery teams should wear protective equipment (heavy-duty gloves andboots) and wash their hands with soap andwater after handling dead bodies (seeChapter 3, Infectious Disease Risks). Tetanus may be a particular problem inunvaccinated workers. Local medical teamsshould be on the alert for tetanus proneinjuries.Protective equipment used for body recovery,Banda Aceh, Indonesia, 2005.8Source: Oliver Morgan Recovery teams often work among debrisor collapsed buildings. First-aid and medical treatment should be available in case ofinjury.

5. STORAGEOF DEAD BODIESOverview Without cold storage decomposition advances rapidly. Within 12 to 48 hours in hot climates, decomposition will be too advanced to allowfacial recognition. Cold storage slows the rate of decomposition and preserves the body for identification.Storage options Whichever storage option is used, each body or body part should be kept in a bodybag or wrapped in a sheet before storage. Waterproof labels (e.g., paper in sealed plastic) with a unique identification number should be used (see Box 6.1 in Chapter 6, Identification of Dead Bodies). Donot write identification numbers on bodies or body bags/sheets as they are erasedeasily during storage.Refrigeration Refrigeration between 2 C and 4 C is the best option. Refrigerated transport containers used by commercial shipping companies can beused to store up to 50 bodies. Enough containers are seldom available at the disaster site and alternative storageoptions should be used until refrigeration becomes available.Temporary burial Temporary burial provides a good option for immediate storage where no othermethod is available, or where longer term temporary storage is needed.9

Management of Dead Bodies after Disasters: A Field Manual for First Responders Temperature underground is lower than at the surface, thereby providing naturalrefrigeration. Temporary burial sites should be constructed in the following way to help ensurefuture location and recovery of bodies:T Use individual burials for a small number of bodies and trench burial for larger numbers.T Burial should be 1.5m deep and at least 200m from drinking water sources (seeChapter 8, Long-term Storage and Disposal of Dead Bodies).T Leave 0.4m between bodies.T Lay bodies in one layer only (not on top of each other).AFP/Getty ImagesT Clearly mark each body (see Chapter 6, Identification of Dead Bodies) andmark their positions at ground level.Temporary burial of dead bodies in Thailand following the tsunami disaster on 26 December 2004.10

5. STORAGE OF DEAD BODIESDry ice Dry ice [carbon dioxide (CO2) frozen at -78.5 C] may be suitable for short-termstorage.T Dry ice should not be placed on top of the bodies, even when wrapped, becauseit damages the body.T Build a low wall of dry ice (i.e., 0.5m high) around groups of about 20 bodiesand cover with a plastic sheet, tarpaulin, or tent.T About 10 kg of dry ice per body, per day is needed, depending on outside temperature.T Dry ice must be handled carefully as it causes “cold burns” if touched withoutproper gloves.T When dry ice melts it produces carbon dioxide gas, which is toxic. Closedrooms or buildings should be avoided when using dry ice in preference to areaswith good natural ventilation.Ice The use of ice (frozen water) should be avoided where possible because:T In hot climates ice melts quickly and large quantities are needed.T Melting ice produces large quantities of dirty waste water that may cause concern about diarrheal disease. Disposal of this waste water creates additionalmanagement issues.T The water may damage bodies and personal belongings (e.g., identity cards).11

6. IDENTIFICATIONOF DEAD BODIESOverview Identification of dead bodies is done by matching information from the deceased(physical features, clothes, etc.) with information from individuals who are missing or presumed dead. Mobilizing forensic resources may take several days. This means that early opportunities to help identify bodies may be lost as the bodies decompose. Visual recognition of cadavers or their photographs by acquaintances of thedeceased is the simplest form of identification, but this is prone to errors.Therefore, whenever possible, it should be complemented with other means offorensic identification, albeit at a later stage. Forensic procedures (autopsies, fingerprinting, dental examinations, DNA) can beused after visual identification of bodies or photographs becomes impossible. The early work of non-specialists in managing the dead (especially proper recovery, documentation and storage methods) will determine much of the success offuture identifications by forensic specialists. The Dead Bodies Identification Form in Annex 1 can be used to collect basic andinvaluable information that will aid later forensic identification procedures.General principles Sooner is better for victim identification. Decomposed bodies are much more difficult to identify and require forensic expertise. The key steps to identification as described below are: Unique reference number,Label, Photograph, Record, and Secure. It should be appreciated that visual recognition, while simple, can result in mistaken identifications causing serious embarrassment, distress to the bereaved and legaldifficulties. It is always preferable to ensure that accurate identification is achievedby evaluating a combination of criteria and not solely on visual recognition.13

Management of Dead Bodies after Disasters: A Field Manual for First Responders Injuries to the deceased, or the presence of blood, fluids, or dirt, especially aroundthe head, will increase the chance of mistaken visual recognition. Any separate body part which proves that a person is dead can aid in the identification and should therefore be managed as though it is a whole body (i.e., using aunique reference number).ProcessesUnique reference (mandatory) Assign a sequential, unique reference number to each body or body part.Reference numbers must not be duplicated. (see Box 6.1, page 17 for a recommended numbering system).Label (mandatory) Write the unique reference number on a waterproof label (e.g., paper sealed inplastic) then securely attach it to the body or body part. A waterproof label with the same unique reference number must also be attachedto the container for the body or body part (e.g., body bag, cover sheet or bag forthe body part).Photograph (mandatory – if photographic equipment is available) The unique reference number must be visible in all photographs. If available, digital cameras allow for easier storage and distribution of photographs. Clean the body sufficiently to allow facial features and clothing to be properly represented in the photographs. In addition to the unique reference number, the photographs should include atleast:T A full length of the body, front view;T Whole face;T Any obvious distinguishing features. If circumstances permit, or at a later time, additional photographs can be includedwith the unique reference number of the following:T Upper and lower part of the body;T All clothing, personal effects, and distinguishing features.14

6. IDENTIFICATION OF DEAD BODIES When taking photographs the following should be considered:T Blurred photographs will not be useful.T Photographs must be taken close to the dead body; when photographing theface, it should fill the entire picture.Minimum photograph set required for visual identificationB) Whole BodyC) Upper BodyD) Lower BodySource: Pongruk Sribanditmongkol / Photographer: Kunt TongTahm Na AyudhayaA) Whole FaceNote: For the purpose of demonstration, photographs were taken of a volunteer and not of a deceased individual.15

Management of Dead Bodies after Disasters: A Field Manual for First RespondersT The photographer should stand at the middle of the body when taking the picture, not at the head or feet.T The photograph must include the visible unique reference number, to ensurethat identification made using the photograph matches the correct body, and ascale, to calculate the size of features in the photo.Record (mandatory) If photographs have been taken, record the following data together with theunique reference using the form in Annex 1: (Dead Bodies Identification Form):T Gender (confirmed by looking at the genital organs).T Approximate age range (infant, child, adolescent, adult, or elderly).T Personal belongings (jewelry, clothes, identity card, driver’s license, etc.).T Obvious specific marks on the skin (e.g., tattoos, scars, birthmarks) or anyobvious deformity. If no photographs have been taken, also record:T Race.T Height.T Color and length of hair.T Color of eyes.Secure Personal belongings should be securely packaged, labeled with the same uniquereference number, and stored with the body or body part. This is mandatory. Clothing should be left on the body.Identification and release of body to relatives To increase reliability of visual recognition, viewing conditions should mini-mizeemotional stress to bereaved relatives. Although there may be no alternative following large disasters, the psychologicalimpact of viewing dozens or hundreds of dead bodies may further reduce thevalidity of visual recognition. Viewing photographs of the highest possible quality may be a better approach.16

6. IDENTIFICATION OF DEAD BODIES Release of a body:T A dead body should only be released when identification is certain.T Visual recognition should be confirmed by other information such as identification of clothing or personal effects.T Information collected about missing people can be used to cross-check visualrecognition (see Annex 2, Missing Persons Form).T A body should only be released by the responsible authority, which must alsoprovide documentation of the release (a letter or death certificate).T Record the name and contact details of the person or relatives who claimed thebody together with the body’s unique reference number.Box 6.1 Unique reference numbering for dead bodiesEach body or body part m u s t have a unique reference number. The following is recommended.PLACE RECOVERY TEAM/PERSON BODY COUNTFor example:Colonia San Juan - Team A–001ORChaing Mai Hospital - P. Sribanditmongkol–001PLACE: Where possible, all bodies should be assigned a unique reference number indicating place ofrecovery. If recovery place is unknown, use instead the place where the body was taken for identification/storage.RECOVERY TEAM/PERSON: Person or team numbering the body.BODY COUNT: A sequential count of bodies at each site (e.g., 001

Forensic specialists may not be available or unable to rapidly access the affected area. There are simple steps that first responders can take to ensure the dead are treat-ed in a dignified way and that can assist in their identification. This Field Manual for First Responderspresents simple recommenda-