THIRD EDITIONNorm ChristensenLissa LeegeJustin St. Juliana330 Hudson Street, NY NY 10013A01 CHRI6053 03 SE FM.indd 112/9/17 1:16 AM

Director, Courseware Portfolio Management: Beth WilburCourseware Portfolio Manager, Specialist: Alison RodalCourseware Director, Content Development: Ginnie Simione JutsonCourseware Senior Analyst: Hilair ChismDevelopment Editor: Mary HillCourseware Editorial Assistant: Alison CandlinCourseware Managing Producer: Mike EarlyContent Producer: Becca Groves, SPi-GlobalSenior Content Developer: Sarah JensenRich Media Content Producer: Ziki DekelContent Producer, Video Development: Tim HainleyFull-Service Vendor: Jason Hammond/Kelly Murphy, SPi-GlobalDesign Manager: Mark Ong, Side By Side StudiosInterior and Cover Designer: Lisa Buckley, Buckley DesignsArt Studio: Kevin Lear, International MappingRights & Permissions Management: Matt Perry, Cenveo Publishing ServicesPhoto Researcher: Kristin PiljaySenior Procurement Specialist: Stacey WeinbergerProduct Marketing Manager: Christa PelaezField Marketing Manager: Mary SalzmanCover Photo Credits: WDG Photo/Shutterstock; Hangingpixels/Shutterstock; Michael Potter11/Shutterstock; Fenkieandreas/Shutterstock; Oticki/Shutterstock;Mary Amerman/Moment/Getty Images; Hero Images/Getty Images; Hero Images/Getty Images; Visual Walkthrough: iShift/Shutterstock; Artjazz/Shutterstock;Nik Merkulov/ShutterstockCopyright 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Thispublication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibitedreproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contactswithin the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissions department, please visit of third party content appear on page C-1, which constitutes an extension of this copyright page.PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING and Mastering Environmental Science are exclusive trademarks in the U.S. and/or othercountries owned by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates.Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks that may appear in this work are the property of theirrespective owners and any references to third-party trademarks, logos or other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptivepurposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion ofPearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc. or itsaffiliates, authors, licensees or distributors.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataNames: Christensen, Norman L., 1946- author.Title: The environment and you / Norm Christensen, Lissa Leege, Justin St.Juliana.Description: Third edition. New York : Pearson Education, Inc., [2018]Identifiers: LCCN 2017042314 ISBN 9780134646053 (Student edition) ISBN 0134646053 (Student edition) ISBN 9780134818764 (A La Carte) ISBN 0134818768 (A La Carte)Subjects: LCSH: Environmentalism. Environmental policy. Environmentalprotection.Classification: LCC GE195 .C575 2018 DDC 304.2/8--dc23LC record available at 10: 0-13-464605-3; ISBN 13: 978-0-13-464605-3 (Student edition)ISBN 10: 0-13-481876-8; ISBN 13: 978-0-13-481876-4 (A La Carte)www.pearsonhighered.comA01 CHRI6053 03 SE FM.indd 212/9/17 1:16 AM

About the AuthorsNorm Christensen is professor emeritus and founding dean of Duke University’sNicholas School of the Environment. A central theme in Norm’s career has been ecosystemchange from both natural and human causes. Norm has worked on numerous nationaladvisory committees on environmental issues and on the boards of several environmentalorganizations including Environmental Defense Fund and The Wilderness Society. He is afellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a fellow and pastpresident of the Ecological Society of America. Norm was the 2017 recipient of the HerbertStoddard Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Association for Fire Ecology.This book is very much a product of Norm’s passion for connecting students withtheir environment. Norm was honored twice by the Duke University with awards fordistinguished undergraduate teaching. He was instrumental in the development ofDuke’s undergraduate program in environmental science and policy, and he taught theintroductory course for this program for over 15 years.DedicationTo Nicholas, Natalie, Noelle,Nicole, Riley, and all otherof Earth’s children. May wemake decisions today thatensure the future beauty,diversity, and health of theenvironment on which theywill depend.Lissa Leege is a professor of biology and the founding director of the Center forSustainability at Georgia Southern University. She earned her undergraduate degree inbiology from St. Olaf College and received her Ph.D. in plant ecology at Michigan StateUniversity. Her ecological research concerns threats to rare plants, including the effectsof fire and invasive species on endangered plant populations and communities. She hasalso conducted 20 years of research on the impacts of invasive pines on the sand dunesof Lake Michigan and the subsequent recovery of this system following invasive speciesremoval. Lissa was instrumental in the development of an Interdisciplinary Concentrationin Environmental Sustainability for undergraduates at Georgia Southern. Under herdirection, the Center for Sustainability engages the campus and community with annualsustainability celebrations, a sustainability grant program, and a robust speaker series.Lissa is also involved with the environment on a statewide level as a member of the 2013Class of the Institute for Georgia Environmental Leadership and a founding member of theGeorgia Campus Sustainability Network.Lissa has taught nonmajors environmental biology for 19 years with an emphasis on how students can contribute toenvironmental solutions. In 2006, she established an Environmental Service Learning project, through which thousands ofenvironmental biology students have engaged in tens of thousands of hours of environmental service in the local community.Lissa has been honored with both college and university service awards and has served as a faculty fellow in Service-Learning. Hercontributions to this book have been inspired by her passion for engaging students in positive solutions to environmental problems.To Micah and Emory, myconstant joy and inspiration.I owe you the beautiful worldI inherited, and it is my hopethat education will motivateall kinds of students to takeleadership and action inbringing about a bright andsustainable future.Justin St. Juliana is a lecturer in the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Departmentat Cornell University. He received his bachelor’s degree in animal ecology at Iowa StateUniversity, his master’s degree in evolutionary ecology from Ben Gurion University of theNegev (Israel), and his Ph.D. in biology from Indiana State University. Justin’s research lies atthe interface of predator prey interactions, optimal foraging, and stress hormones. His studyorganisms include rodents, foxes, fleas, owls, snakes, and feral cats. Before taking his positionat Cornell University, Justin was an associate professor at Ivy Tech Community College (TerreHaute Campus) in Indiana. While at Ivy Tech he taught at multiple biological levels frommicrobiology to environmental science. Justin also developed and still administers a statewideonline nonmajors biology course taken by thousands of Ivy Tech students every year.Justin teaches the large mixed majors/nonmajors Ecology and the Environmentcourse at Cornell University. He is very interested in the latest teaching innovations andheavily incorporates active and community-based learning into his courses. Justin believesthat scientific concepts can be taught as stories that relate to a student’s life. He also extensively utilizes technology to improvestudent learning outcomes. In addition to being a coauthor, Justin developed the Process of Science, Global Connects, and Focuson Figures activities associated with this book, in Mastering Environmental Science.To my father, Ronald, who,having spent his formativeyears as a hunting andfishing guide, enabled me toappreciate the natural worldand taught me the value ofa strong land ethic. I hopethat, in this book, I can passhis valuable lessons along tothe readers.iiiA01 CHRI6053 03 SE FM.indd 312/9/17 1:16 AM

PrefaceIt has been said that change is the only constant. For billions of years, Earth’s environment and the organismsthat inhabit it have been constantly changing. Over tens of millennia we, our species, have constantly changed;each generation’s technologies, values, and understanding of its environment have differed from those thatpreceded it. As a consequence of those technologies and our growing numbers, we have changed Earth’senvironment more than any other species living now or in the past.You and the world around you are the current manifestation of this process of inexorable change. The healthand well-being of most of Earth’s people have markedly improved over the past century but our impacts onEarth’s environment have increased significantly. A century ago, our global population was fewer than 2 billion;today there are well over 7.5 billion of us. What’s more, each of us today uses several times more resourcesand generates several times more waste than our century-ago ancestors. The effects on our environment arealarming. Resources such as water and petroleum are dwindling. Air pollution and water pollution have becomecommonplace. Rates of extinction among Earth’s species are more than 100 times higher than in pre-industrialtimes, and Earth’s climate is warming because of human-caused changes in the chemistry of its atmosphere.Sea level rise, dwindling sea ice in the Arctic, and increased severity of droughts and hurricanes are just a fewof the consequences of this global warming.These changes threaten the health of Earth’s ecosystems and the well-being of many of its people;they directly affect you. These changes are unsustainable, but they are not inevitable. Sustainability andecosystems are important themes throughout this book. Sustainable action and change require knowledgeand understanding of the ecosystems upon which we depend. Yes, they are complex, but the key elements ofecosystem function and sustainability are beautifully simple. In an increasingly urban and technology-drivenworld, the connections between Earth’s ecosystems and our well-being may seem distant, even irrelevant.But they are at all times immediate and compelling.We have not downplayed the significant challenges presented by the variety of environmental issuesthat affect our lives because a balanced view of the challenges is needed. Naïve optimism is not likely tomotivate substantial change in our actions and impacts, but neither is pessimism. We can all change theworld in directions that are truly sustainable. We are convinced you will be part of that process of change.That confidence and conviction were the motivation for writing this book; hope was the inspiration.New Innovations and Hallmark FeaturesA New AuthorNew to this EditionWe welcome Justin St. Juliana to the author team ofThe Environment and You. Justin is a lecturer in theEcology and Evolutionary Biology Department atCornell University. Justin believes that scientificconcepts can be taught as stories that relate to astudent’s life. His ability to relate scientific conceptsto a student’s experiences fits perfectly with ourgoal of bringing environmental science to life. Hisability to use technology to improve student learningand engagement has been brought to bear on thevarious activities in Mastering , both in this editionand previous ones. Justin’s energy, interests, andteaching philosophy are a welcome addition tothe team. Misconception New to the third edition, this featureaddresses common student misunderstandings relatedto matters of scientific fact and offers a new take onthe Q&A feature from prior editions. Is Earth gettingwarmer because of the ozone hole? Is bottled watersafer to drink than tap water? Do vaccines lead toautism in children? You Decide New to the third edition, this featurepresents you with a real environmental issue andchallenges you to take a stand on that issue, usingscientific evidence to support your position. RememberCecil the lion? Are there some situations where itcould be permissible to hunt endangered species? Howwould you react if fracking were to come to your town?ivA01 CHRI6053 03 SE FM.indd 412/9/17 1:16 AM

PrefaceA Focus on YouSolid Coverage of Environmental ScienceA hallmark of each edition, now further reinforced inthe third edition, is the importance of humans as agentsof environmental change. The effects of those changeson human well-being continue to be a central theme inthe third edition. The Environment and You emphasizesproblem solving and solutions that will enable you tomake more informed choices on actions to support thewell-being of humans and the health of the planet.Our current understanding of environmental issues isbuilt on a foundation of decades of careful researchby generations of scientists. The third edition notonly continues to provide many examples to help youunderstand the role science and scientific data can play inreducing uncertainty surrounding environmental issues butalso engages you in the spirit of inquiry scientists use to askquestions and gather evidence to support predictions. Where You Live This feature invites you to use primarydata sources to explore environmental principles,issues, and sustainable solutions within the contextof your local community. By answering the questionsposed, you’ll see how concepts and examples fromyour textbook can be applied to where you live andlearn. This will not only satisfy your curiosity but alsohelp you connect local discoveries to central themesof the chapters. Do you know, for example, whatbiome you live in (Chapter 7) or whether you shareyour local environment with an endangered species(Chapter 8)? Do you ever think about just how muchwater you use every day (Chapter 11)? How about thesize of your waste footprint (Chapter 17)? These arejust a few of the questions you will explore. Currency New discoveries are constantly occurring,and our understanding is quickly evolving in all areasof environmental science. Among the many updates tothe third edition are recently revised United Nationsforecasts for the growth of human populations, thelatest information on changes in Earth’s climate fromthe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, andrecent innovations in agriculture, energy conservation,and green building practices. This edition providesthe most current synthesis of such changes in everyenvironmental field. Graphs and charts use the latestavailable data, and recent events such as HurricanesHarvey and Irma; the devastating wildfires in northernCalifornia; and the rise and spread of the Zika virus areincluded. Seeing Solutions Problems need solutions andthis feature highlights how individuals and groupsaround the world are using new approaches tosolve environmental problems. Topics include a citythat is investing in green space to solve problemsassociated with transportation, the local economy,and the health of its citizens (Chapter 16); a businessthat lessens its impact while improving profit andemployee–community relations with a focus on thetriple bottom line (Chapter 1); a group that supportsincreased educational opportunity for young womenas a means to improve the health and well-being oftheir communities (Chapter 5); and efforts designed tosupport underdeveloped countries in dealing with theeconomic pressures of a changing world (Chapter 8). Motivation Each chapter opens with an essay abouthumans and their interaction with or understandingof the environment. From the historic collapse ofthe Newfoundland cod fishery (Chapter 1) to therestoration of breeding populations of the CaliforniaCondor (Chapter 8) or the spread of the Zika virus intothe Americas (Chapter 18), environmental science isfull of interesting stories. These stories will help youconnect to the scientific concepts introduced in eachchapter. Agents of Change This feature showcases theefforts of college students and recent graduateswho have taken action to produce sustainableenvironments and improve human well-being. It isintended to provide guidance and encouragementfor any student with a similar drive to make theworld a better place. The third edition features sixnew inspiring Agents of Change: Will Amos andAldrin Lupisan, inventors of a bike-powered plasticrecycling system; Erica Davis, contributor to a reformbill that keeps money from natural resource extractionwithin local communities; Amira Odeh, leader ofa campus-wide plastic bottle ban; Dejah Powell,creator of an environmental summer camp targetedat disadvantaged inner city youth; Swarnav Pujari,inventor and founder of TouchLight, a companythat captures kinetic energy from human foot traffic;and Destiny Watford, champion of clean air andenvironmental justice in Baltimore. Applications and Examples The Environment and Youprovides numerous explanations of how scientistshave found innovative ways to gather the evidence thatsupports current conclusions and enables informedpredictions. Focus on Science This feature encourages you tothink about the process of scientific inquiry and thedifferent methods scientists use to gather evidence byhighlighting the work of individual scientists and thecontributions they have made. For example, how doesa scientist measure the amount of plastic waste in theocean (Chapter 11)? We emphasize the strategiesscientists use to conduct scientific research andinclude critical thinking questions that will spark classdiscussion and encourage you to think like a scientist. New Frontiers This feature highlights interestingareas of environmental research as well as uniqueapproaches to problem solving. New Frontier featuresemphasize the complex interactions between newscientific discovery, ethics, and policy and ask youto consider the implications of the power sciencehas to change the way we live and interact with theenvironment.vA01 CHRI6053 03 SE FM.indd 512/9/17 1:16 AM

AcknowledgmentsOrganized for LearningThe Environment and You is organized to help studentsunderstand environmental science. Each lesson begins with a big idea so students alwayshave a way to see the forest as well as the trees. Manageable amounts of information are organizedby key concepts within modules, giving studentscomplete lessons before moving on to the next topic. Important concepts are illustrated with clear,purposeful charts and graphs and supported withphotographs that capture the essence of the conceptbeing presented.Supporting All Levels of StudentsStudents in introductory environmental science classeshave vastly different levels of science background. TheEnvironment and You is designed and written to serve thatdiversity. Self-assessment: Questions at the end of everymodule allow students to assess whether they havetruly grasped a topic before they move on. Questionsat the end of each chapter are designed to encouragesynthesis of concepts and application to real situations. Mastering Environmental Science: Used by over amillion science students, the Mastering platform isthe most effective and widely used online tutorial,homework, and assessment system for the sciences. Itmotivates students to come to class prepared; providesstudents with personalized coaching and feedback;quickly monitors and displays student results; easilycaptures data to demonstrate assessment outcomes;and automatically grades assignments, includingconcept review activities, 3-D BioFlix animationactivities and quizzes, Graphit! activities, and chapterreading quizzes.Mastering Environmental Science has a suite ofactivities designed to help your students practice conceptsand develop scientific inquiry skills. Assignable activitiesinclude: Focus on Figures videos, new to the third edition,walk students through fifteen of the most criticalenvironmental science figures from The Environmentand You. Each video, created by Justin St. Juliana, helpsstudents explore and interpret key figures such as thecarbon cycle, the Keeling curve, and logistic populationgrowth. The videos are assignable in Mastering Environmental Science as part of an interactive activitythat further reinforces student understanding. Process of Science activities encourage your studentsto put scientific inquiry skills into action. Theseinteractive activities guide them through currentenvironmental research and help them understandconcepts such as developing a hypothesis, making aprediction, understanding variables and independentvariables, and more. Global Connection activities demonstrate the globalrelevance of local environmental issues andchapter themes. Your students will be able to drawcomparisons between environmental issues in theUnited States and other countries such as water usage,air pollution, or species habitat loss. Interpreting Graphs and Data activities allow studentsto practice quantitative skills related to graphinterpretation and analysis. Video Field Trips bring real environmental issues tolife. These fourteen videos are embedded in the eTextand assignable in Mastering Environmental Science.Take a tour of a water desalination plant, explore thesustainability features of a college campus, or visit acoal-fired power plant. These are just a few examplesof the issues each video explores.AcknowledgmentsWe accept all of the responsibilities of authorship forthe third edition of The Environment and You, mostparticularly for any mistakes or flaws. But others deservemuch of the credit for its development, organization,presentation, and production. As this project evolvedover the course of several years, the Pearson Educationpublishing team and numerous environmental sciencecolleagues have provided much needed guidance andencouragement.We are especially grateful to Alison Rodal, ourcourseware portfolio manager for the second andthird editions of The Environment and You. She was thecatalyst for many of this edition’s new features, and hercontagious enthusiasm for this project motivated us atevery stage.Our development editor, Mary Hill, expertly andcheerfully guided us on this third edition journey,from start to finish, as she did for the second edition.Mary has an exceptional eye for detail on mattersranging from grammar to module organization andlayout to connections among chapters. Even more,we are awed by her nuanced understanding of somany facets of environmental science that informedher suggestions on substance and presentation. Herwonderful sense of humor sustained us throughoutthis process.We thank Courseware Portfolio Management,Director Beth Wilbur and Courseware Director, ContentDevelopment Ginnie Simione Jutson who encouragedand facilitated this project throughout its second andthird editions. In addition, we would not have beenable to publish this project without the support fromSVP Portfolio Management-Science Adam Jaworski andManaging Director, Higher Education Courseware PaulviA01 CHRI6053 03 SE FM.indd 612/9/17 1:16 AM

AcknowledgmentsCorey. Thank you for taking a risk on this project and foryour ongoing collective leadership in science education.Sophie Mitchell and her wonderful team at DorlingKindersley Education helped craft and execute theoriginal vision for the first edition of this project.Producing a book where text and art are created,designed, and arranged in tandem requires a highlycollaborative approach to publishing. We are gratefulto our production colleagues for overseeing andorchestrating this effort. Mike Early and the contentproduction team oversaw the project’s many details andmilestones. Mark Ong and Lisa Buckley were responsiblefor the page and cover design of this third edition, JasonHammond and Kelly Murphy of SPi-Global oversaw thecomposition of our text files to actual page layouts, alongwith Becca Groves who managed to keep all members ofthe team on point. We thank Kevin Lear of InternationalMapping for his leadership in the production ofillustrations, graphs, and maps and Hilair Chism forher graphic talents utilized in creating this edition’scycle diagrams and other complex figures.We want to thank Editorial Assistant Alison Candlinfor coordinating the Agents of Change contributors andelements so masterfully, and for continuing to follow thevision of this great feature. We also appreciate the supportshe provided to the entire publishing team.Special thanks to Rich Media Content ProducerZiki Dekel for overseeing all details on the productionof media for the new edition and for Mastering Environmental Science, and to Libby Reiser and SarahJensen for bringing their creativity and expertise tothe development of our new Mastering EnvironmentalScience activities. Todd Brown ensured the smoothrelease of Mastering Environmental Science for thethird edition of the text.We would also like to thank each contributingsupplement author for the edition. Jacquelyn Jordan,Clayton State University, did a wonderful job carefullyupdating the Instructor’s Guide. The Test Bank waswritten and assembled by David Serrano, Broward StateCollege. David is also the author of the third editionPowerPoint presentations, carefully updating eachchapter presentation to help give instructors a headstartin planning each lecture. Reading Questions were craftedby Nilo Marin, Broward State College. We also thankErica Kipp, Pace University, for her contribution to theupdates in Mastering Environmental Science resourcesfor this edition.After many years spent creating and crafting thisbook, there comes a time to pass the torch to marketingand sales. We are grateful to Allison Rona Director ofProduct Marketing, for her support of this text. ChristaPelaez and Mary Salzman brought endless enthusiasm inpromoting The Environment and You, communicating ourvision to instructors all over the country. We are fortunateto have the support of the many sales representatives whowork tirelessly to communicate our vision to faculty andensure instructors’ needs are satisfied. We thank them fortheir dedication and commitment!Terrence Bensel, Brian Bovard, Robert Kingsolver,and Lester Rowntree made important contributions in thefirst edition to chapters on climate change, biodiversity,agriculture, energy, and waste management. Theirdetailed outlines provided road maps through sometimesunfamiliar territory, and many elements from their draftsof several of these chapters are part of the final product.We owe much to our students at Duke, GeorgiaSouthern, and Cornell Universities. In many ways, theyhelped shape the spirit and content of this text. They havebeen guinea pigs for each of its chapters and volunteeredmany editorial comments. The book is much the betterfor their input.Over the years, each of us has had the benefit ofworking with wonderful mentors and colleagues, all thewhile being supported by our families. For each of us,individually, we want to thank those people who are sospecial to us.Norm: My undergraduate and master’s advisor BertTribbey passed along much knowledge and wisdom thatappears in these pages, and he has long served as myprimary role model for teaching excellence. My Dukecolleagues William Chameides, Deborah Gallagher,Prasad Kasibhatla, Emily Klein, Randy Kramer, SusanLozier, Marie Lynn Miranda, Joel Meyer, Lincoln Pratson,William Schlesinger, and Dean Urban were key sources ofinformation and constructive criticism.I am grateful to my family for their patience withme over the life of this project. My wife Portia has beena sounding board for new ideas, an editor of essays andfeatures, and the best friend ever.Lissa: My Ph.D. advisor Peter Murphy was an excellentrole model who always encouraged my love of teachingand ultimately inspired my desire to reach a wideraudience. I am grateful to Georgia Southern Universityand the Department of Biology for supporting mypursuit of this project, and to my museum colleaguesfor opening my eyes to the exhilaration of teachingbeyond my classroom.I thank my parents for believing in my passion forsustainability and supporting my path. I owe much tomy children Micah and Emory for the time they allowedme to dedicate to this book. Finally, I extend my deepestgratitude to my remarkably patient and supportivehusband Frank D’Arcangelo, who encouraged me tofollow this dream, even though it meant that he wouldtake on a greater share of parenting responsibilities.Justin: I would like to thank my undergraduate advisorsFred Janzen and Brent Danielson, my master’s advisor BurtKotler as well as Berry Pinshow, my Ph.D. advisor WilliamMitchell as well as Steve Lima, and my former departmenthead Janice Webster. Each of these people taught mevaluable lessons about science and education.I am grateful to my family, Paloma, Tanner, Vincent,and Lourdes. When I was a young child I wanted to bean environmental author. Although, I never thought thiswould take the form of a textbook, or textbook associatedactivities, my family afforded me the time to pursuethis dream.viiA01 CHRI6053 03 SE FM.indd 712/9/17 1:16 AM

AcknowledgmentsThird Edition ReviewersShamili AjgoankarCollege of DuPageElaine K. Alexander FagnerMcLennan Community CollegeJohn AllWestern Kentucky UniversityStefan BeckerCUNY - Lehman CollegeMarguerite BishopNash Community CollegeJudy BluemerMorton CollegeRandi BrazeauMetropolitan State University of DenverRobert BruckNorth Carolina State UniversitySusan BurgoonAmarillo CollegeKelly CartwrightCollege of Lake Coun

online nonmajors biology course taken by thousands of Ivy Tech students every year. Justin teaches the large mixed majors/nonmajors Ecology and the Environment course at Cornell University. He is very interested in the latest teaching innovations and heavily incorporates active and community-based learning into his courses. Justin believes