Transcription

Forensic Psychology 3rd Edition Pozzulo Test BankFull Download: logy-3rd-edition-pozzulo-test-bank/CHAPTER 1An Introduction to Forensic PsychologyMULTIPLE CHOICE1. Which of the following is not a likely activity of a clinical forensic psychologist?a. studying the effects of lighting conditions on eyewitness recallb. evaluating the parents of a troubled teen for custody and access recommendationsc. delivering treatment programs to high risk sex offendersd. assessing juvenile delinquents in detention centres for behavioural problemse. practising relaxation techniques with police officers on leave due to burnoutAnswer: aDifficulty: easyPage: 4–52. What is the main difference between a clinical forensic psychologist and a forensicpsychiatrist?a. Forensic psychiatrists cannot provide expert testimony in court.b. Clinical forensic psychologists can prescribe medication.c. Forensic psychiatrists aren’t concerned with mental health issues.d. Clinical forensic psychologists rely more on a medical model of mental illness.e. Forensic psychiatrists are medical doctors.Answer: eDifficulty: easyPage: 53. Which task is likely to be performed by an experimental forensic psychologist?a. examining the effects of judges’ instructions on jury verdictsb. providing expert testimonyc. examining the effects of correctional programs on reoffending ratesd. studying the effects of police stress on job satisfactione. all of the aboveAnswer: eDifficulty: easyPage: 6–74. Which of the following is an example of “psychology in the law”?a. a psychologist providing expert testimony in court on the accuracy of eyewitnessidentificationb. examining how we can improve the assessment of fitness to stand trialc. validating a tool for predicting risk of violenced. a researcher examining factors that affect police decision making in a lab settinge. studying the impact of a new interrogation technique to see if it decreases thelikelihood that people will make false confessionsAnswer: aDifficulty: moderate Page: 8Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.This sample only, Download all chapters at: alibabadownload.com1-1

5. Judges currently use findings from psychological research to decide whether awitness on the stand is lying or not. This is a good example of:a. psychology and the lawb. psychology in the lawc. informational influenced. Normalizatione. psychology of the lawAnswer: bDifficulty: easyPage: 86. Alfred Binet conducted a series of studies to examine how question style influencedthe accuracy of child eyewitnesses. He found that:a. moderately leading questions result in the most accurate answersb. free recall results in the most accurate answersc. highly leading questions result in the most accurate answersd. free recall results in the least accurate answerse. eyewitness accuracy did not vary across question typeAnswer: bDifficulty: moderate Page: 97. A researcher arranges for a confederate to enter his classroom, steal his wallet, andrun out. The researcher then asks the students to provide a description of the“offender” in an effort to study eyewitness recall. This is an example of:a. a verifiable experimentb. a virtual experimentc. a reality experimentd. a misinformation teste. a subjective recall testAnswer: cDifficulty: easyPage: 9–108. Stern’s 1901 “reality experiment” involved a bogus quarrel between two students inwhich a gun was involved. Stern concluded that:a. racial discrimination is commonb. pre-trial media has a strong influence on eyewitness accuracyc. retroactive memory-falsification tends to occurd. emotional arousal influences accuracy of recalle. none of the aboveAnswer: dDifficulty: moderate Page: 9–10Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.1-2

9. Place the following events in chronological order:1–Cattell conducts some of the first experiments in North America on the psychologyof testimony2–APA recognizes forensic psychology as a speciality discipline3–Hugo Munsterberg publishes On the Witness Stand4–The U.S. Supreme courts lays out the Daubert criteria for determining whenscientific evidence should be admitted in courta. 4, 2, 3, 1b. 3, 4, 2, 1c. 4, 3, 2, 1d. 1, 2, 3, 4e. 1, 3, 4, 2Answer: eDifficulty: hardPage: 1010. The following psychologist was the first to propose a testable theory of criminalbehaviour:a. Bandurab. Freudc. Munsterbergd. Eysencke. MarstonAnswer: dDifficulty: hardPage: 1011. Which of the following psychologists would be most interested in the experttestimony provided by Von Schrenck-Notzing in 1896?a. a psychologist interested in the diagnosis of juvenile delinquentsb. a psychologist interested in the effect of pre-trial press coveragec. a psychologist interested in the problems with hypnotic interviewingd. a psychologist interested in the accuracy of child eyewitnessese. a psychologist interested in lie detectionAnswer: bDifficulty: moderate Page: 1112. Which of the following individuals would be most interested to hear about researchshowing that child eyewitnesses can be highly inaccurate?a. Varendonckb. Bandurac. Marstond. Von Schrenck-Notzinge. EysenckAnswer: aDifficulty: moderate Page: 11Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.1-3

13. Which of the following psychologists would be most interested in the experttestimony provided by Varendonck in 1911?a. a psychologist interested in the diagnosis of juvenile delinquentsb. a psychologist interested in the effect of pre-trial press coveragec. a psychologist interested in the problems with hypnotic interviewingd. a psychologist interested in the accuracy of child eyewitnessese. a psychologist interested in factors that influence jury decision makingAnswer: dDifficulty: moderate Page: 1114. Who is generally considered the father of forensic psychology?a. John Henry Wigmoreb. Wilhelm Wundtc. James Ogloffd. James Cattelle. Hugo MunsterbergAnswer: eDifficulty: easyPage: 1215. According to Sheldon’s (1949) constitutional theory, which of the following are mostlikely to become involved with crime?a. ectomorphsb. mesomorphsc. those with lesions in the temporal lobed. those having experienced maternal deprivatione. men with two Y chromosomesAnswer: bDifficulty: moderate Page: 1316. John Bowlby’s (1944) theory of crime suggests that the primary cause of antisocialbehaviour is:a. low self-controlb. povertyc. inappropriate role modelsd. maternal deprivatione. chromosomal abnormalitiesAnswer: dDifficulty: moderate Page: 13Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.1-4

17. According to Sutherland’s (1939) differential association theory, crime is the resultof?a. povertyb. labellingc. learningd. socio-economic straine. high levels of extraversion and neuroticismAnswer: cDifficulty: moderate Page: 1318. Which of the following theorists is most closely associated with labelling theories ofcrime?a. Mertonb. Beckerc. Sutherlandd. Bowlbye. BanduraAnswer: bDifficulty: easyPage: 1319. According to Eysenck, which of the following would be at risk for criminalbehaviour?a. someone with good conditionabilityb. someone with low levels of extraversion and neuroticismc. someone with high levels of extraversion and neuroticismd. someone who is easy to socializee. someone with low self-controlAnswer: cDifficulty: moderate Page: 1320. The case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954) has been cited as a significant casein the development of psychology and the law. On what issue in this case didpsychologists submit a brief to the Supreme Court?a. prejudice and discriminationb. intelligencec. aggressiond. inclusion of mitigating factors in death penalty decisionse. gender differences in treatment readinessAnswer: aDifficulty: easyPage: 14Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.1-5

21. The issue in the case of Jenkins v. United States (1962) that is of most interest toforensic psychologists is?a. the right for a defendant to plead not guilty by reason of insanityb. the duty to inform a third party of potential risksc. the duty to report suspected cases of child abused. the admissibility of expert testimony from psychologists on mental disorderse. the use of psychology in civil trialsAnswer: dDifficulty: easyPage: 14–1522. Which of the following indicators demonstrates that forensic psychology hasestablished itself as a field?a. the development of professional associations that represent the interests offorensic psychologistsb. a consensus on the definition of forensic psychologyc. the fact that forensic psychologists now regularly take on the role of legal scholard. the fact that criteria for admitting expert testimony from forensic psychologistshave become more leniente. widespread prescription privileges for forensic psychologistsAnswer: aDifficulty: easyPage: 1523. What is the main difference between an expert witness and other witnesses in court?a. Expert witnesses are not cross-examined.b. Expert witnesses can only testify about what they directly observed.c. Expert witnesses are able to offer their opinion to the court.d. Expert witnesses are only available for the prosecution.e. Expert witnesses do not have to meet any criteria before they are allowed totestify.Answer: cDifficulty: moderate Page: 1824. What would be considered the most ethical behaviour for a psychologist who is hiredas an expert witness?a. provide testimony consistent with the party that hired youb. ensure that both the defence and the prosecution have an expert witnessc. provide testimony relevant to the case as you understand itd. discuss your testimony with both the defence team and the prosecution teame. provide only a written report rather than testify in personAnswer: cDifficulty: easyPage: 18Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.1-6

25. Hess (1987, 1999) describes seven dimensions along which law and psychologydiffer. Which of the following statements is false?a. Psychology is nomothetic and law is idiographic.b. Psychology is prescriptive and law is descriptive.c. Psychological knowledge is gained through research and legal knowledge isgained through precedent.d. A psychologist’s behaviour is severely limited within the court while thebehaviour of a lawyer is less restricted.e. Psychology believes in the quest for objective truths whereas the law defines truthsubjectively.Answer: bDifficulty: moderate Page: 1926. According to Hess (1987, 1999), which of the following accurately represents adimension along which law and psychology can be contrasted?a. Law is idiographic while psychology is nomothetic.b. Law is descriptive while psychology is prescriptive.c. Law is proactive while psychology is reactive.d. Law is academic while psychology is operational.e. Law defines truth objectively while psychology defines truth subjectively.Answer: aDifficulty: moderate Page: 1927. Which of the following was not identified by Hess (1987, 1999) as a dimension alongwhich law and psychology differ?a. latitudeb. principlesc. criteriad. purposee. epistemologyAnswer: dDifficulty: moderate Page: 1928. The “general acceptance test” relates to:a. eyewitness recallb. child witnessesc. aggression and segregation in schoolsd. suggestive questioning techniquese. the admissibility of expert testimonyAnswer: eDifficulty: easyPage: 20Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.1-7

29. Which of the following is not specified by the Daubert criteria, which are used todetermine the validity of scientific evidence?a. the research adheres to professional standardsb. the research is falsifiablec. the research has been peer reviewedd. the research has a recognized rate of errore. the research has been conducted in real-world (i.e., non-lab) settingsAnswer: eDifficulty: moderate Page: 2130. Why is the case of R. v. Mohan (1994) so important to forensic psychologists?a. It stressed the duty to protect a third party.b. It dealt with the admissibility of expert evidence.c. It established guidelines for reporting child abuse.d. It highlighted the importance of client confidentiality.e. It dealt with the issue of racial segregation.Answer: bDifficulty: easyPage: 2131. According to R. v. Mohan (1994), which is not a consideration when determining theadmissibility of expert testimony?a. The expert must be qualified.b. The testimony must provide information that goes beyond the jurors’ commonunderstanding.c. The evidence provided must be necessary for assisting the trier of fact.d. The testimony must have been allowed into evidence by a higher court.e. The evidence must not violate any rules of exclusion.Answer: dDifficulty: moderate Page: 21–2232. What is the significance of the case of R. v. McIntosh and McCarthy (1997)?a. It dealt with racial segregation.b. It raises potential problems with the Mohan criteria.c. It dealt with issues associated with the insanity defence.d. It highlighted the importance of voluntary (i.e., non-coercive) confessions.e. It established guidelines for cross-examination.Answer: bDifficulty: easyPage: 23SHORT ANSWER33. Provide a comprehensive (i.e., broad) definition of forensic psychology.Answer:Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.1-8

According to Bartol and Bartol (2006), forensic psychology is defined as (a) theresearch endeavour that examines aspects of human behaviour directly related tothe legal process and (b) the professional practice of psychology within or inconsultation with a legal system that embraces both civil and criminal law.Difficulty: moderate Page: 434. Name the three roles that forensic psychologists can play and describe the sorts ofactivities that each type of forensic psychologist would be involved in (useexamples).Answer:a. Clinician As a clinician, the forensic psychologist is interested in mental health issues asthey pertain to the legal system. Activities can include research (e.g.,validating an assessment tool) and practice (e.g., making risk assessmentdecisions).b. Researcher As a researcher, the forensic psychologist is concerned with mental healthissues as they pertain to the legal system, but also any other research issuesthat relate to the law or legal system. Examples of potential activities includeexamining the effectiveness of risk assessment strategies, determining factorsthat influence jury decision making, studying the impact of questioning styleon eyewitness recall, etc.c. Legal scholar As a legal scholar, the forensic psychologist is interested in the analysis ofmental health law and psychologically oriented legal movements. Most of theactivities of the legal scholar revolve around policy analysis (e.g., taser use inpolice agencies) and legislative consultation (e.g., mandatory arrest legislationin domestic violence cases).Difficulty: moderate Page: 4–735. According to Haney (1980), there are three primary ways in which psychology andlaw relate to one another. Name, define, and provide an example of each.Answer:a. Psychology and the law Psychology is viewed as a separate discipline to the law and is used to testvarious assumptions made by the law or legal system. E.g., determining whether risk of violence can be accurately predicted using aspecific assessment toolb. Psychology in the lawCopyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.1-9

Psychological knowledge is applied directly within the context of the legalsystem as it operates. E.g., the provision of expert testimony about factors that influence theaccuracy of eyewitness identifications in a court casec. Psychology of the law Psychology is used to study the law itself E.g., a legal scholar examining whether certain laws have helped to reduce thecrime rateDifficulty: hardPage: 836. What are the three major categories of crime theories discussed in your text? List thethree categories and describe a specific theory that fits into each category.Answer:a. Biological theories E.g., Sheldon’s constitutional theory suggests that body build andtemperament are linked; mesomorphs, due to their aggressive nature andmuscular build, are more likely to become involved in crime.b. Sociological theories E.g., Merton’s strain theory suggests that certain people (e.g., those from thelower class) have restricted access to legitimate means (e.g., education) toachieve valued goals of success (e.g., high paying jobs); some of theseindividuals will turn to illegitimate means (e.g., crime) in an attempt toachieve these goals.c. Psychological theories E.g., Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation suggests that early separationof children from their mothers prevents effective social development fromtaking place; without effective social development, children will experienceproblems developing positive social relationships and will instead developantisocial inclinations.Difficulty: hardPage: 1337. According to Ogloff and Cronshaw (2001), what are the two main functions of expertwitnesses? Also, how do expert witnesses differ from ordinary witnesses in court?Answer: The two main functions of expert witnesses are to provide the court withinformation that assists them in understanding the issues at hand and to providethe court with an opinion (which must fall within the limits of their areas ofexpertise).Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.1-10

Expert witnesses differ from ordinary witnesses in that they are able to providetheir opinion on a particular matter, whereas ordinary witnesses are only able totestify about what they have directly observed.Difficulty: moderate Page: 1838. Hess (1987, 1999) discusses at least seven different dimensions along whichpsychology and law differ. List four of these dimensions and define precisely whatthey mean.Answer:a. Knowledge In psychology, knowledge is gained through cumulative research. In the law, knowledge is acquired through precedent, logical thinking, andcase law.b. Methodology In psychology, methods are predominantly nomothetic (i.e., goal is to uncovergeneral trends and processes). In the law, the methodological approach is idiographic (i.e., operates on acase-by-case basis).c. Nature of law Psychology is descriptive, the goal being to describe how people behave. Law is prescriptive, telling people how they should behave.d. Epistemology In psychology, it is assumed that there is an objective truth that can potentiallybe uncovered using the experimental method. In the law, truth is defined subjectively and is based on who can present themost convincing argument.e. Principles In psychology, alternative explanations are considered (i.e., falsifiability). The lawyer’s goal is to convince the court that his/her explanation is solelycorrect.f. Criteria Psychology is cautious and conservative in accepting a hypothesis as true(results must be replicated, etc.). Law decides truth on the basis of a single case and a criterion that is far morelenient.g. Latitude The behaviour of a psychologist providing expert testimony in court isseverely restricted. The behaviour of a lawyer within the court is subject to far fewer restrictions.The student need only provide four of the seven dimensions to receive full marks.Difficulty: hardPage: 19Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.1-11

Forensic Psychology 3rd Edition Pozzulo Test BankFull Download: logy-3rd-edition-pozzulo-test-bank/39. What is the “general acceptance test”? What is the main criticism associated with thistest?Answer: The general acceptance test is a standard for accepting expert testimony. It statesthat expert testimony will be admissible in court if the basis of the testimony isgenerally accepted within the scientific community in which it belongs.This test formed the basis for admissibility decisions for many years in the UnitedStates; however, the major criticism associated with it comes from the vaguenessof terms such as “general acceptance” and “the particular field in which itbelongs” and whether judges are able to appropriately determine the scope ofthese terms.Difficulty: moderate Page: 2040. What are the Mohan criteria? Outline the four criteria and identify a potentialproblem with them.Answer:a. The Mohan criteria are the Canadian criteria which outline factors that should beconsidered when determining the admissibility of expert testimony in court. Thefour criteria are: The evidence must be relevant. The evidence must be necessary for assisting the trier of fact (i.e., it goesbeyond the common understanding of court). The evidence must not violate any rules of exclusion (i.e., it must not relate towhether a witness is telling the truth). The testimony must be provided by a qualified expert.b. These criteria are potentially problematic as they are highly subject to thediscretion of the judge and judges can sometimes be wrong (e.g., the judgedetermines if the evidence actually goes beyond the common understanding of thejury).Difficulty: hardPage: 21–23Copyright 2012 Pearson Canada Inc.This sample only, Download all chapters at: alibabadownload.com1-12

a. Forensic psychiatrists cannot provide expert testimony in court. b. Clinical forensic psychologists can prescribe medication. c. Forensic psychiatrists aren't concerned with mental health issues. d. Clinical forensic psychologists rely more on a medical model of mental illness. e. Forensic psychiatrists are medical doctors.