Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English MaterialDinamika IlmuP-ISSN: 1411-3031; E-ISSN: 2442-96512015, Vol. 15 No. 1Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary Material for EnglishStructure SubjectNurawati MinaSampoerna University, [email protected] Dwi PutrantiSTBA LIA Jakarta, [email protected] comes from an Italian word ‘Cartone’ meaning a large paper. It isdesigned not only as the media to describe daily activities, but also toentertain, criticize, provoke, and even to teach people. A lot of studieshave been conducted regarding the implementation of cartoon inclassroom or outside classroom context. It is proven that cartoon givessome positive attitudes in teaching students. However, the knowledge inhow to design and utilize the cartoon based on teachers’ and/or students’needs should be revealed. This article allows teachers and students toknow the process and the basic principles of how a cartoon for learning isdesigned in the context of English Structure class. The method used inthis study is design and development research. The result of this study is acartoon entitled “The Tragedy of Jayaprana” which promotes thenarrative text as the topic of the learning.Keywords:cartoon, cartoon designing, cartoon for learning, English structure,narrativeDinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015115

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English MaterialA. IntroductionMany studies have been conducted regarding teaching by using cartoon orother animated illustration such as comic, cartoon, and movie, as the teachingaid. The studies show some positive attitudes toward students’ performance inlanguage learning, especially in their grammar competence. An experimentalstudy by Arikan & Taraf (2010) focusing on the usage of cartoon in an Englishlesson revealed that an experimental group which was treated by using cartoon inEnglish lesson showed an excellent result in vocabulary and grammarcompetencies than the controlled group. A cartoon is created not only forchildren but also for all ages including adult. High school or college studentsinevitably need to access images in their daily life. It clarifies that age is not abarrier for cartoon to have its audience. Piaw (2012) conducted an experimentalresearch about reading by using a cartoon to students with average of age 20.2.The result of the research reveals that the students’ reading rate increases.Student’s motivation toward reading also increases with a significant result,students can master the complicated ideas after reading a text by using cartoon.In the Faculty of Education, Sampoerna University, English structure(ES) course is a mandatory course for students who take English LanguageTeaching major and it is held in the second semester. This course aims toincrease students’ skills, knowledge, understanding, and accuracy of Englishstructure whose materials focus on grammar and structure of the Englishlanguage. The materials used in ES are mostly in the form of e-book, PDF andPPT which also employ some pictures or illustration in their pages/slides.However, ES does not promote cartoon which has a positive impact toward thestudents. Thus, this study comes up as the design research which offers a newmaterial for teaching English grammar and structure.Since this study is a design research, the focus of this study is only on thedesigning of a cartoon as a supplementary material for university students.Therefore, there is no experimental study conducted in this research to measurestudents’ performance after having the cartoon as their supplementary material.In other words, it only focuses on the design process and its validation, and noton the implementation.The cartoon is beneficial not only to entertain, but also to teach studentsin a different way (Wyk, 2011). It offers a fun and meaningful teaching andlearning experience. However, creating cartoon which converts a text material tobecome cartoon is not as simple as drawing pictures. Designing cartoon forteaching and learning needs some basic processes and principles. Thus, thisstudy is trying to give ideas on how a cartoon as a supplementary material foruniversity students is designed, and to show a complete set of examples of acartoon design.Cartoon is the amount of pictures telling story regarding social mattersuch as jokes, politics, people thought or recent event (Fairrington, 2009). Astime goes by, cartoon is also used as one of the media in the teaching andDinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015116

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English Materiallearning process. There are some aspects to discuss regarding cartoon in generaland in the educational field. They are the genre of cartoon, the elements ofcartoon, the implementation of cartoon based on previous researches and otherliteratures, the design of educational cartoon, and the teaching of grammar withcartoon.Cartoon Story Maker is the chosen software to support this study. Thissoftware is easy to use, it is already completed with some characters andbackground, and some other features such as: balloons, captions, the choice ofpublishing, etc. This software is free and downloadable and computer friendly,which means that it does not need a huge memory or a fancy computerspecification to download. The extension of the file when it is published is alsouser friendly. Its extension is html and pdf, so all computer users can use thissoftware.There are some concepts of cartoon designing in educational field as asupplementary teaching and learning material. The first three concepts comefrom Kabapinar (2005) based on his study to some students in a science class.The effective cartoon as a teaching and learning material can be a tool to findout students’ ideas without being affected by ideas of others, it can provide apurpose for practical work, and fix students’ misconception. Another concept isstated by Kabapinar (2005) which stated some concepts of cartoons as a teachingmaterial. The concepts are: the amount of text in the cartoon which has to be asminimal as possible, the cartoon presents a real life situation, and the content ofthe cartoon should be credible and scientific since it aims for teaching andlearning.Considering cartoon as a teaching and learning material, Bell and Goweras cited in Tomlinson (2003) stated that in designing a teaching and learningmaterial, the author needs to compromise that the material should meet thepractical need of teachers and learners and it should match the realities ofpublishing material. Second, Tomlinson (2003) tells about the course book asone of the materials designed to be flexible to capitalize on teachers’ capacity forcreativity. Third, Fauzan (2014b) stated that teaching materials should bedeveloped to make the students have the ability to communicate in English inacademic and nonacademic situation. Forth, Fauzan (2014c) also stated that anappropriate teaching material became one of the important keys of theimprovement of the students’ English ability. So there are other two main pointsto be considered in designing a cartoon as a teaching material. The first, cartoonis possible to be created, published, and used by teacher and/or students; andthe second, cartoon can support teachers’ creativity in teaching.B. Research MethodologyBased on Richey & Klein (2007) the type of this research is a designresearch which creates a product based on some theories and previousresearches instead of making a new theory. Based on this, the method andDinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015117

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English Materialstrategy to conduct the research will be derived. It is the common methodsemployed in Design and Development Research by Richey & Klein (2007).There are a number of steps in Design and Development Research butthe common steps from Ellis & Levy (2010) are used. The steps are: a)identifying the problems; b) describing the objective; c) designing and developingthe artifact; d) testing the artifact; and e) evaluating the results of testing; and f)communicating those results. Following is the illustration of the steps that isused in this ctive(b)Designing& developingthe esult(e)Communicatingthe testingresult(f)Figure 1: The 6-phase design and development research (Ellis & Levy, 2010)The first step to do is identifying the problem. The problem of thisresearch is the absence of the material which is in the form of cartoon in EScourse for university students. Design research is usually conducted becausethere are complex problems that need an urgent tool to be developed or there isan absence of workable method in a certain context (Ellis & Levy, 2010). In thisresearch, the problem is about the absence of a tool in a subject. However itdoes not mean that the existing tools or methods or teaching and learningstrategies are not workable. This study is merely to offer a new teaching aidcalled cartoon and assess the possibility of the cartoon to be applied inclassroom context.The next step is describing the objective. As mentioned above, this studyis generally conducted to offer a new teaching tool. However, the mainobjectives are to seek how the cartoon for university learners is designed andwhat it will look like.It is then followed with designing and developing the artifact. After theresearcher formulates the problem and the objectives of this study, designingstep is conducted. Based on Ellis & Levy (2010), there are some factors that theresearcher needs to consider in this step, such as:a. Building conceptual framework, including system functionalities andrequirementsb. Analyzing the alternative solutions and designing a system architecturec. Creating prototyped. Testing and evaluating the artifactThis step is to measure the validity of the product whether it isapplicable in the context described or not (Ellis & Levy, 2010). Commonly,the method to test and evaluate the artifact, involving a direct observationDinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015118

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English Materialfrom pilot studies (Ellis & Levy, 2010) and indirect indicators from surveys,questionnaires, interviews, and other observations (Richey & Klein, 2007).Here are some indicators need to be considered in testing and evaluating theartifact:1) Establish the ways in which the product does and does not meet thefunctionalities and requirements identified for it 2) by using accepted, literature-supported processes 3) .in order to ensure acceptance of the value of the artifact.Meanwhile the piloting of this project uses expert review method and directobservation to the end target users.e. Communicating the testing resultsThis is the final step functioning to show the results of the study.Based on Ellis & Levy (2010), there are four types of conclusion that aredrawn in this study taken from Richey & Klein (2007) as follows;1) Indicator for a new theoretical construct.2) Inspiration for developing new hypothesis, identifying new variables, andexpanding insight into a richer explanation of already discovered causalrelationship.3) Better understanding of design process itself.4) Discovery of heuristic and broadly applicable principles regarding design,development, or use of a tool or model.The participants of this research are university students, a design expert anda subject matter expert. The population is Faculty of Education (FoE),Sampoerna University students. For a need analysis or preliminary study, thestudents who participated are 5 of 6 students, cohort 2013 who had learned andjoined English Structure (ES) class. They joined ES class for one semester andalready passed the class. For Test or Piloting step of this study there were 5 of 12students of 2014 cohort. The students of 2014 cohort are chosen because theyare the target end users of the cartoon. They are chosen based on a lecturer’srecommendation from Versant test, an English proficiency test issued byPearson which is held in Sampoerna University by Institute of Languages andCommunication (ILC). They represent English competence from the lower, themedium and the higher competence. The next participants are experts on designand subject matter. The expert is a lecturer with a Ph.D. in Education and hassome experiences in cartoon development for learning and another lecturer witha Master in Education and has been teaching English structure for 3 years 6months.There are two steps used in the data collection techniques; before andafter designing steps. In before designing step, the data are collected from theDinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015119

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English Materialpreliminary study to identify the problem and the objective of the study. Toidentify the problem, the researcher collects the data from the students ofFaculty of Education intake 2013 who had joined English Structure class. Thesedata functions to identify the objective of the research and to determine thetopic of the cartoon based on the student’s choice. After that, other data aregained from the subject matter experts regarding the material that would beconverted to the cartoon. In this step a library study will also be conducted tosupport in arranging the research objective and in designing the cartoon. Afterdesigning, data from test and evaluation step are taken in this section. The resultsof piloting test and evaluation with the end target users and experts are obtained.In order to collect the data, the researcher distributes a questionnaire toeach participant. There are three types of questionnaires distributed to theparticipants. The first type is distributed to Sampoerna University students togather the information about their needs, lacks, and interests of EnglishStructure course. The second type of questionnaire is distributed to the EnglishStructure lecturers and the third is given to the design expert. The questionnairedistributed to students is aimed to gain the preliminary data of the teaching andlearning context in English Structure class. Meanwhile the questionnairesdistributed to the experts are aimed to obtain some feedback and suggestiontoward cartoon designing as a supplementary material for an English course.In data analysis, the researcher elaborated how the data are analyzed. Thefirst data, the questionnaires were obtained from intake 2013 students. The resultof this questionnaire is to determine the topic used by the researcher in designingthe cartoon. Learners are asked the three most difficult grammar subjects andbased on the answers, the researcher will categorize by using tally. To analyze thecollected data, the researcher uses qualitative approach. In other words thecollected data are described in narration. Here are the details of the data analysisin this study:1. Identify the problem/ research and information gatheringThe data were taken from six students of FoE 2013 who already took EScourse and the result was that they had difficulties in learning a narrative text.The students were required to choose three topics of the subject which neededto be supported by cartoon. The students were also required to answer somequestions regarding teaching and learning condition in the ES class.2. Test and evaluationIn this step, there were three data obtained. The first was from the designexpert, the second was from the subject matter expert and the last was from thetarget end users. Following are the detail of the procedure in obtaining the data.a. Subject matter1) Discussing the questionnaire2) Revising the questionnaireDinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015120

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English Material3) Consulting the cartoon (focusing on grammar and the instruction)4) Revising the cartoon5) Collecting the questionnaireb. Designer1) Discussing the questionnaire2) Revising the questionnaire3) Consulting the cartoon (focusing on graphic)4) Revising the cartoon5) Collecting the questionnaire3. Target end userThis step was aimed to see the feasibility of the cartoon used to the targetstudents. In this step the researcher used the cartoon and a handout to checkstudents’ understanding regarding the content of the cartoon. According to Ellis& Levy (2010) the method of testing and evaluating the product of design anddevelopment commonly use a direct observation and some indirect indicatorsfrom surveys, questionnaires, interviews and other observations.C. FindingsFrom the answers of the questionnaire, it was found that ES was a funlearning. Students enjoyed the course and they understood the materials. ESimplemented some teaching materials such as text, book, journal, worksheet, andsong lyrics. The course did not use any kind of cartoon or comic in teaching andlearning process. Students thought that by using cartoon in the class, the learningcan be fun and it would be helpful in understanding the concept. From 11 topicsoffered in the questionnaire, two of five students chose the topic ‘The use ofgrammatical feature in the narrative and description text’. Meanwhile the otherschose different topics such as Direct and Indirect Speech, Modal Auxiliaries andConditional Sentence. The reason the two of the students chose ‘The use ofgrammatical feature in the narrative and description text’ as the topic because“this topic fits best for cartoon and will help students to understand more aboutthe topic”, and “the grammatical features are complicated”. Students A chosethis topic because she did not remember about what she has learnt from it andshe wanted the cartoon to emphasize the type of the story in narrative anddescriptive text. Meanwhile student B remembered the things that she learntfrom the topic such as the characteristic of narrative and descriptive text, but shewanted the cartoon to emphasize the grammatical/ language features.The researcher asked for a material of the topic to English Structurelecturer who is also the expert of the subject matter in this research. Based onthe material, it is found that there are several subtopics taught in the topic suchas the genre of narrative text, the structure of narrative text, the use of past tenseand the use of conjunction. From various sub-topics of narrative text, theDinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015121

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English Materialresearcher decided to focus on giving an example of narrative text rather thanexplaining about narrative. The reason to focus on giving the example ofnarrative is because this cartoon enables students to recognize and analyze thetext before going into the lesson. So, this cartoon has an objective to enablestudents in analyzing the grammar features and characters of the narrative text.After deciding the objective of the cartoon, the reseacher chose myth asthe genre. The myth is entitled ‘The Tragedy of Jayaprana’ which is taken from abook by Terada (1994), ‘The Magic Crocodile and other Folktales fromIndonesia’. This story is chosen because it is not a familiar story taught in school.The story is a myth because it is related with Balinese belief about kindness toother mankind.1. Designinga. The storyThe story was taken from a book entitled The Magic Crocodile and OtherFolktales from Indonesia written by Alice M. Terada telling about the Balinese’sbelief in crime. The title of the story is The Tragedy of Jayaprana. In the storythere are several characters named Jayaprana, The King, Ni Layonsari, ISawunggaling (the guard), The King’s Wives, Ni Layonsari’s family, and TheServants. In the story, the dialog is found limited, most of the story is narrative.The researcher as the designer will create some dialogs to emphasize the story.Following is summary of the story before it is converted to a cartoon.1) OrientationOn Bali Island, a long time ago a terrible epidemic swept through avillage and caused many deaths including Jayaprana’s parents and sisters.Jayaprana was still a little boy when he was left orphan. One day theking visited the village in order to cheer and help the survivors. He met IJayaprana, a handsome and polite boy. The king took him to the palaceand took care of him as his favorite employee.2) Complication/problema) When Jayaprana reached the age of twenty-five, the king asked himto marry somebody and Jayaprana chose a girl named Ni Layonsariwhom he just met. The king was pleased and made a festive party.Ni Layonsari was the most beautiful bride the king had ever seen.The king started to like Ni Layonsari and wanted to take her as hisown wife.b) He asked his private guard named I Sawunggaling to help him getNi Layonsari. The king ordered I Jayaprana to go to Terima Gulfwith forty soldiers to get killed by I Sawunggaling.c) I Jayaprana got stabbed by I Sawunggaling and died.d) Some soldiers buried Jayaprana’s body because they respected himand regretted his death.Dinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015122

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English Materiale) On the way back to the palace, many soldiers died because theywere attacked by tigers and snakes when the sky suddenly turneddark. Only ten of them survived and reached the palace.f) The soldiers reported to the king and to Ni Layonsari that Jayapranadied on the way to Terima Gulf.g) However Ni Layonsari did not believe what the soldiers told theking. She insisted that the soldiers tell the truth. The soldiers saidsorry to Ni Layonsari and told her the truth.3) Resolutiona) After the soldiers told the truth, Ni Layonsari was sad and fainted.In her faint she saw Jayaprana and he told her that if the king askedher to marry him, she should refuse and he (Jayaprana) would waitfor her in heaven.b) One day the king summoned Ni Layonsari and asked her to marryhim. Ni Layonsari refused him and killed herself by taking the king’sKris and stabbed herself.c) The king was mad. He killed so many people before killing himself.He died.d) Some loyal soldiers blamed the people of the passing of the king, sothey attacked them, and it caused a war. Only Ni Layonsari’s familysurvived.e) Layonsari and Jayaprana were believed to gather in heaven.2. Cartoon Principlesa. Genre of cartoonThe genre of this cartoon is not included in the three genres of thecartoon that Fairrington (2009) mentioned which is based on its panel. It is notstrip cartoon, editorial or gag cartoon, it is a cartoon that consists of one singlepanel in every page. This cartoon consists of 24 frames or panels, a single panelon every page. However if it is printed to PDF it can be like a strip cartoon butsince students are going to use it online, this cartoon cannot be concluded as astrip cartoon.b. Elements of cartoon1) BalloonsBalloons used in this cartoon are mostly rectangle balloons to emphasizethe characters’ talk. There are some bubble-balloons used to show thatthe dialog happens in the character’s head and they are unspoken. In theend of the story, sharp balloons are used to show the exaggeration fromone character. The function is to rise up the tone of the cartoon so thereaders can get a different tone from the text.Dinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015123

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English Material2) CaptionThe feature of caption in the cartoon is really helpful in facilitating thenarrator who is the character at the beginning and at the end of thestory. In other words, captions function to show that the cartoon isnarrative and it is told by somebody outside the story of the Tragedy ofJayaprana.3) CharactersIn this cartoon, the characters are divided into two categories based onthe function and the scene. The first is the story teller to guide the story,and the second is the story characters. There are two story tellercharacters: a boy and a girl. Their function is to bring the readers intothe story and guide the students to read the cartoon as it is instructed.The second, the story characters are the characters that play in the storyof the Tragedy of Jayaprana. There are kid version of I Jayaprana, adultversion of I Jayaprana, Ni Layonsari, The King, Soldiers and Tigers.Some of the characters also function as the scene such as the tigers inframe 12 and the soldiers in frame 9.4) SceneThis story is a Balinese’s story, the scenes mostly take place in Bali.Some scenes of Bali such as Bali temples, Bali villages are needed. Thereare several background pictures needed to represent the scenes. Thereare some pictures needed as the background such as, the wedding,village, palace, aisle, soldiers, jungle, jungle at night, dead people, and theoutside of the palace. In addition, the scene of kitchen is chosen as therepresentative of a home for the two additional characters (a boy and agirl as the storytellers).Meanwhile, for the foreground, there are some pictures needed. Thefirst is the main character such as a boy, a girl, Jayaprana figure, NiLayonsari and The King. The second is the supportive characters suchas soldiers and tigers. Also the ornament of wedding is needed toemphasize about the festive wedding party.3. The SoftwareCartoon Story Maker v1.1 has some features to support the cartoonmaking. Starting from the main character, the software enables some charactersto be used and this study uses the two of the cartoon main characters. Thesoftware also supports the space for users to use the customized or their owndesigned character by using foreground feature. By using this feature, the userscan import the character or other image from the computer or from a USB data.This feature is not only for importing character but also for other image thatfunction as a foreground.Dinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015124

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English MaterialThe software also supports nineteen background images for the cartoon.In this project, the user also uses some default backgrounds. However there areso many additional backgrounds needed to support the story. The user uses afeature import background and makes the background images by using drawingapplications before importing them to this software.Caption is really helpful in this cartoon because it is about a narrativestory. In a narrative story, narration is really needed to tell the story. In thiscartoon, balloon helps to emphasize the story and to bring reader to the plot ofthe story. In the first and last frames, balloons are used by two characters withthe function to bring the readers into the story and to follow the instructions.The cartoon is published to the html extension as the default extension ofthe cartoon. It can also be converted to PDF by using feature Print. Howeverthere are some difficulties in publishing the cartoon. The text that is displayed onthe workspace could be different with the text that is printed into PDF or html.The researcher needs to review the text and edit it if there are some texts that arenot displayed when it is printed.4. Testing and Evaluating the ProductThere are some sessions that researcher had with the experts. Thesessions discuss about the problems, the design, until the preparation of pilotingthe product. After having some sessions, the researcher gave the questionnairesheets to the experts. The design expert focused on the episodes of the cartoon,character design and background. Meanwhile the subject matter expert focusedon the topic, the content of the cartoon, some grammar corrections and thelanguage of the cartoon. This step is aimed to know whether the cartoon isdesigned properly based on the principle of cartoon designing or not. Inaddition, this step aims to see whether the cartoon designed meet the objectiveof the course or not and to see the feasibility of the cartoon to be used in aclassroom context.There are two things that should be considered in the cartoon designingbased on the discussion with the design expert. The first is about the size of thecharacters, the second is about the episodes. Based on the discussion, the size ofthe characters can be created as a big picture to emphasize the power of the onewho is talking or as the sign of foreground of the cartoon (Fairrington, 2009).However some of the characters were too big, so the researcher needed to resizethem. Figure 4.5 shows a big character as the foreground and some smallcharacters as the background which are created smaller to emphasize theforeground.The second thing that should be considered is the length of the episodesin each frame. Before revising, the total number of the frames is 16, but there aresome frames having too many dialogues and are needed to be separated into twoor three frames. The frames that should be separated into two frames are frames2, 4, 7, and 8. Meanwhile the frames that should be separated into three framesDinamika Ilmu, Volume 15 (1), 2015125

Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary English Materialare frame 9 and 10. After the frames are separated, the total of the framesbecome 24. The other thing that should be considered is the background of thecartoon which should represent what is being told in the story. For example, thestory tells about an event in the village, and then the background shouldrepresent the village. Figure 4.6 shows how a background is changed to representthe story. The image which consists of trees and houses with green as thedominant color is used to represent the image of a village.The last step is piloting the cartoon to the target end users. The studentswho participated in this piloting step were the representation of 2014 students.They were chosen based on the last Versant Test (an English Competence test).There were five from six students participating in this step. Two of them got thehighest score, the other two were in the middle and one got the lowest score.This step is aimed to describe in what ways the cartoon meets or fails tomeet the requirements. The requirements of cartoon based on Kabapinar (2005)are cartoon as a tool to find out students' ideas without being affected by others,to fix students' misconception and to produce language. In this

cartoon, the implementation of cartoon based on previous researches and other literatures, the design of educational cartoon, and the teaching of grammar with cartoon. Cartoon Story Maker is the chosen software to support this study. This software is easy to use, it is already completed with some characters andFile Size: 865KBPage Count: 22