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U n i t e d n at i o n s C o n f e r e n C e o n t r a d e a n d d e v e l o p m e n tMeasuringiCT and gender:an assessMenTReport prepared for the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development

U n i t e d n at i o n s C o n f e r e n C e o n t r a d e a n d d e v e l o p m e n tMeasuringiCT and gender:an assessMenTReport prepared for the Partnership on Measuring ICT for DevelopmentNew York and Geneva, 2014

IVMeasuring ICT and Gender: An AssessmentNoteWithin the UNCTAD Division on Technology and Logistics, the ICT Analysis Section carries out policy-orientedanalytical work on the development implications of information and communications technologies (ICTs).It seeks to promote international dialogue on issues related to ICTs for development, and contributes to buildingdeveloping countries’ capacities to measure the information economy and to design and implement relevantpolicies and legal frameworks. The ICT Analysis section is also responsible for the preparation of the InformationEconomy Report.In this Report, the terms country/economy refer, as appropriate, to territories or areas. The designations employedand the presentation of the material do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the United Nationsconcerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of authorities or concerning the delimitationof its frontiers or boundaries. In addition, the designations of country groups are intended solely for statistical oranalytical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage of development reached bya particular country or area in the development process.Reference to companies and their activities should not be construed as an endorsement by UNCTAD of thosecompanies or their activities.The following symbols have been used in the tables:Two dots (.) indicate that data are not available or are not separately reported;Rows in tables have been omitted in those cases where no data are available for any of the elements in the row;A dash (-) indicates that the item is equal to zero or its value is negligible;A blank in a table indicates that the item is not applicable, unless otherwise indicated;A slash (/) between dates representing years, for example, 1994/95, indicates a financial year;Use of an en dash (–) between dates representing years, for example, 1994–1995, signifies the full periodinvolved, including the beginning and end years;Use of the term “dollars” ( ) refers to United States of America dollars, unless otherwise indicated;Annual rates of growth or change, unless otherwise stated, refer to annual compound rates;Details and percentages in tables do not necessarily add up to the totals because of rounding.Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is requested, together witha copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint to be sent to the UNCTAD secretariat.UNCTAD/WEB/DTL/STICT/2014/1UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATIONCopyright United Nations, 2014All rights reserved

utive summaryVIIVIIIIXChapter I. Introduction1A. Objective of this report2B. The need for gender statistics2C. Evolution of gender-related ICT statistics3D. About the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development4E. The Partnership Task Group on Gender5Chapter II. Measurement of gender and ICTA. Measurement of gender and ICT within the Partnership and its Task Group on Gender78Partnership core indicators8Activities of Partnership members on gender-related statistics8B. Gender-related ICT statistics and indicators of other TGG members10C. Other initiatives to measure ICT and gender12D. Gender and development: equality statistics, indicators and indexes13Chapter III. Identifying areas of demand and indicators15A. Identifying areas of demand for gender-related ICT statistics16B. The Partnership and gender issues16C. Household access and individual use of ICT17C.1. Existing core ICT indicatorsC.2. Additions and changes to indicators of household/individual useC.3. Possible household/individual indicators for future considerationC.4. General methodological considerations in gender statisticsD. Education and ICT indicatorsD.1. Existing indicators that can be disaggregated by sexD.2. Additional non-core indicators on ICT in education that can be disaggregated by sexD.3. Proposed additional indicators in educationE. Employment172024252626262829E.1. Employment in ICT occupations29E.2. ICT employment31F. Businesses, small-business owners and ICT indicators32F.1. Business surveys33F.2. Surveys of small-business owners33G. E-government37

Measuring ICT and Gender: An AssessmentVIChapter IV. Conclusions and recommendations39A. Conclusions40B. Recommendations40Partnership efforts41National efforts41Annex. Revised and extended core list of ICT indicators, 201343Bibliography46List of tablesTable 1. Existing core indicators, suggested revisions and proposed new indicatorsfor measuring gender and ICTsTable 2. Partnership’s core indicators with possibility of disaggregation by sex (situation in 2007)X5Table 3. Countries reporting to ITU on the core ICT access and usage indicators, 2009 201119Table 4. Proportion of learners enrolled in programmes offering Internet-assisted instruction - ED627Table 5. Proportion of ICT qualified teachers in primary and secondary schools - ED827Table 6. Categories of ICT professional and technical occupations31Table 7. Economies reporting official data on core indicator ICT1, 2008 201132Table 8. Regions/economies reporting official data for core indicators on ICT use in business,B1 to B12, 2008 201134

AcknowledgementsVIIAcknowledgementsThis report, Measuring ICT and Gender: An Assessment , was based on a background paper prepared by NancyHafkin, UNCTAD consultant, under the overall guidance of UNCTAD and the International TelecommunicationUnion (ITU) in close consultation with members of the Task Group on Gender (TGG) of the Partnership onMeasuring ICT for Development.Preparation of the report was based on desk research, and on consultations with the TGG and its individualmembers, either in person or online, as well as with other researchers on gender statistics and gender andinformation and communications technologies (ICTs). Their cooperation has been invaluable in this task. Inputswere received from the following TGG members: Susan Teltscher, Esperanza Magpantay and Doris Olaya of ITU,Torbjörn Fredriksson, Scarlett Fondeur and Diana Korka of UNCTAD, Peter Wallet and Martin Schaaper of theUNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), David Hunter of the International Labour Organization (ILO), Remi Langof the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Nibal Idlebi of theUnited Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), Alison Gillwald and Mariama DeenSwarray of Research ICT Africa (RIA), Shazna Zuhyle of LIRNEasia, Sophia Huyer of Women in Global Scienceand Technology (WISAT), and Sonia Jorge and Karin Alexander of the Web Foundation.The report was discussed in detail at a Partnership Expert Meeting on Gender and ICT Indicators which washeld in Mexico City on 3 December 2013.1 It was also presented, and submitted for further written comments,at the ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Symposium (WTIS) that took place in Mexico City from 4 to6 December 2013.2 Valuable inputs and comments were received from Nancy Volensky (Bermuda), AlexandreBarbosa and Tatiana Jereissati (Brazil), Germania Estevez (Dominican Republic), Nagwa El Shenawy, Safa Mostafaand Heba Youssef (Egypt), Ernestina Hope Turkson (Ghana), Biranchi Narayan Satpathy (India), Hock Eng Koay(Malaysia), Félix Vélez and Desiree Delgado (Mexico), Ramon Albert (Philippines), Kaoru Kimura, William Princeand Buyant Khaltarkhuu (World Bank).The report also benefited from valuable discussions held at various meetings, especially at the Women, ICT andDevelopment (WICTAD) Forum in Washington in January 2013, at the meeting of the Working Group on Genderof the United Nations Broadband Commission in Mexico City in April 2013 and at the WSIS Forum in Geneva inMay 2013.Members of the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development are grateful to national statistical offices (NSOs)for their sharing of data and appreciate the responses received to annual survey questionnaires on measuringICT.The cover was designed by Nadège Hadjemian, with desktop publishing by Laurence Duchemin. The report wasedited by Praveen Bhalla.Publication of this report was made possible by a financial contribution from the Government of Sweden.

Measuring ICT and Gender: An AssessmentVIIIAbbreviationsDFID Department for International Development (United Kingdom)ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the PacificESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western AsiaIAEG-GS Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Gender Statistics (of the United Nations)ICTinformation and communications technologyIDRC International Development Research Centre (Canada)ILO International Labour OrganizationISCED International Standard Classification of EducationISCO International Standard Classification of OccupationISIC International Standard Industrial ClassificationITinformation technologyITU International Telecommunication UnionMDGMillennium Development GoalNSOnational statistical officeOECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentRIA Research ICT AfricaSIMsubscriber identity moduleTGGPartnership Task Group on GenderUIS UNESCO Institute for StatisticsUNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentUNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeUNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUNSD United Nations Statistical DivisionUSAID United States Agency for International DevelopmentWICTADWomen, ICT and DevelopmentWISATWomen in Global Science and TechnologyWSISWorld Summit on the Information Society

Executive summaryIXExecutive summaryThis report constitutes part of the efforts by the Task Group on Gender (TGG) of the Partnership on MeasuringICT for Development (hereinafter referred to as the Partnership) to improve the availability of sex-disaggregateddata, especially in developing countries. It takes stock of existing ICT indicators disaggregated by sex, assessesdata availability and identifies main gaps based on an evaluation of needs and demand for such indicators. Italso identifies areas covered as well as potential new areas where sex-disaggregated data are desirable, and themethodological work needed in order to develop relevant indicators to fill the data gaps. The report has beenprepared as an input to the Partnership’s work on measuring ICT and gender, and is intended to serve as a basisfor further discussions with countries on this subject.The major reason for defining and collecting gender-related statistics on ICT is to identify and document variationsin access to and use of ICT by men and women in order to inform national policy and set international policy goalsas a necessary prerequisite for the achievement of a globally equitable information society. The importance of thisundertaking has been affirmed in many forums, including the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)and in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of the United Nations.When data is collected in aggregate form, it masks gender differences, so that the situation of women isunrecorded and ignored, not only in statistics but also in policy formulation. As ICT becomes increasingly vitalto innumerable aspects of everyday life globally, attention is being directed to digital divides, among which thegender divide is a major concern.Collection of ICT-related sex-disaggregated statistics ensures that the realities of both men and women arereflected in national ICT data, thereby providing the basis for gender-inclusive policy and planning. The paucityof sex-disaggregated ICT data, particularly from developing countries, makes it difficult to highlight the need forpolicymakers to address gender issues in ICT policies, plans and strategies. Encouraging the collection of suchICT statistics and indicators is particularly important in developing countries because of the enormous genderbased disparities of access and use of ICTs, as well as opportunities that ICTs can offer girls and women in thesecountries.The Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development, established in 2004, has developed a core list of ICTindicators. The latest version of the list (2013) includes 57 indicators, 12 of which are collected and disaggregatedby sex (annex).This report describes the efforts to collect gender-disaggregated ICT statistics by the Partnership and TGGmembers, including the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS),UNCTAD, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Economic and Social Commission forAsia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA),Eurostat, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), LIRNEasia, Research ICT Africa,Women in Global Society and Technology (WISAT) and the World Wide Web Foundation. Other internationalefforts and studies to define indicators and measure gender and ICT are also outlined. It is necessary, however,to distinguish between data that can be compared internationally, which is the objective of the Partnership, andother efforts to collect and disseminate data.The almost complete absence of ICT statistics and indicators from international statistics and indicators ongender equality is underlined in the hope that improved communications between the communities involved ingender statistics and ICT statistics, respectively, will help advance measurement at the intersection of genderand ICT. The United Nations Inter-Agency Expert Group on Gender Statistics (IAEG-GS) has taken encouragingsteps in this direction.There is demand for a great variety of information about the relationship between gender and ICT in variousrealms. Based on a survey of the literature on gender and ICT, this report identifies areas of high demand for

Measuring ICT and Gender: An AssessmentXgender-related indicators, and offers proposals for sex-disaggregation of existing indicators and the addition ofnew indicators in line with Partnership principles and aims. Notably, those indicators should: Be of relevance to policy-making relating to the information society at national, regional and international levels Be simple, realistic and measurable Be conceived with a view to a high probability of country responses Keep the burden of data collection to a minimumThe areas covered by the proposed changes, where internationally comparable, reliable gender-related data arelacking include ICTs and education, access to and use of ICTs, barriers to the Internet, employment in the ICTsector itself and in ICT occupations across many sectors, ICT in the workforce and in entrepreneurship, andseveral aspects of mobile phone use, particularly in developing countries.The suggested list for measuring gender and ICT comprises the following:i) Revisions to existing core indicators/surveys,ii) Proposed new indicators, some of which necessitate further development work, andiii) Existing core indicators, some of which involve data collection issues, as shown in table 1.The proposed indicators cover the following categories: household/individual use, employment, education,business and small-business owners. Two areas are highlighted for consideration in future revisions anddevelopment of indicators: gender equality in broadband access and gender-based violence.Collection of data on these indicators would be an important step towards building inclusive information societies.Table 1. Existing core indicators, suggested revisions and proposed new indicators for measuringgender and ICTsIndicator codeIndicatorExisting/proposed revisionsto existing indicator/Further work neededproposed new indicatorHousehold/individual ICT usageHH1, HH2, HH3, HH4,HH6, H11, HH13, HH14,HH16HH5HH7HH8HH9HH10HH12HH15Household access indicatorsProportion of individuals using a computerProportion of individuals using the InternetProportion of individuals using theInternet, by locationProportion of individuals using theInternet, by type of activityProportion of individuals using a mobilecellular telephoneProportion of individuals using theInternet, by frequencyIndividuals with ICT skills, by type of skillsProportion of individuals who own amobile phoneProportion of individuals using a mobilephone, by type of activityProportion of individuals not using theInternet , by type of barriersExistingFilter question on sexof household headExistingExistingExistingNo changeExistingNo changeExistingNo changeExistingNo changeExistingProposed new indicatorNo changeDefinition of mobile phoneownershipDevelopment of responseson mobile phone activitiesDevelopment of list of barriersto Internet accessby individualsProposed new indicatorProposed new indicatorNo changeNo changeNo changeEducationED6ED7Proportion of learners who have accessExistingto the Internet at schoolProportion of learners enrolled at the post- Existingsecondary level in ICT-related fieldsNo changeData are currently not availablefor this indicator. UNESCO tocollect data on this indicator.continued

Executive summaryXITable 1. Existing core indicators, suggested revisions and proposed new indicators for measuringgender and ICTsExisting/proposed revisionsFurther work neededto existing indicator/proposed new indicatorIndicator codeIndicatorED8Proportion of ICT-qualified teachers inschoolsExistingProportion of primary and secondaryschoolteachers trained to teach subjectsusing ICT facilities (ISCED* levels 1-3)(sex disaggregated)Proposed new indicatorBased on non-core indicatorED38Proportion of pupils enrolled inprogrammes offering computer assistedinstruction (ISCED levels 1-3)(sex disaggregated)Proposed new indicatorBased on existing indicatorProportion of pupils enrolled inprogrammes offering Internet-assistedinstruction (ISCED levels 1-3)(sex disaggregated)Proposed new indicatorBased on existing indicatorProportion of pupils enrolled inprogrammes offering courses in basiccomputer skills or computing(ISCED levels 1-3) (sex disaggregated)Proposed new indicatorBased on existing indicatorProportion of graduates in ICT-relatedfields at post-secondary non-tertiary andtertiary levels (sex disaggregated)Proposed new indicatorBased on non-core indicatorED46Proportion of total business sectorworkforce involved in the ICT sectorProposed revision: disaggregatedby sexDisaggregate indicators by sexProportion of employees in ICToccupationsProposed new indicatorDefinition and measurementof ICT occupationsIndicators for business access and useProposed revision: additionof filter question on gendercomposition of businessemployeesPrecise formulation of filterquestion to be determined:male/female dominated,neutralProportion of small-business ownersusing the Internet (sex disaggregated)Proposed new indicatorElaboration and implementationof a survey of owners of microand small businesses, with anICT module includedEmploymentICT1BusinessB1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6,B7, B8, B9, B10, B11, B12Small-business ownersProportion of small-business owners using Proposed new indicatormobile phones (sex disaggregated)Development of responses onInternet, by type of activityProportion of small-business ownersusing mobile phones, by type of activity(sex disaggregated)Proposed new indicatorProportion of small-business ownersusing the Internet, by type of activity(sex disaggregated)Proposed new indicatorEG1Proportion of persons employed in centralgovernment organizations routinely usingcomputersExistingNo change in definition.Data currently not available;it should therefore be collectedfor this indicator.EG2Proportion of persons employed in centralgovernment organizations routinely usingthe InternetExistingNo change in definition.Data currently not available;it should therefore be collectedfor this indicator.E-governmentNote: * ISCED is UNESCO’s International Standard Classification of Education.

Measuring ICT and Gender: An AssessmentXIIRecommendationsProposed actions by the PartnershipContinued improvement in the collection of ICT data at the individual level, particularly from developing countries,is key to obtaining gender-related ICT statistics. Most importantly the Partnership should continue its efforts toencourage national statistical offices (NSOs) and other official statistical entities in developing countries to collectindividual-level ICT data, with sex as a classificatory variable.The Partnership as a whole and its members individually need to raise awareness among policymakers and dataproducers of the importance of sex-disaggregated ICT statistics, emphasizing that individual-level ICT statisticscan be collected through existing surveys that allow for disaggregation by sex and without the need for allocatingadditional resources.The Partnership, through the Task Group on Gender (TGG), should continue and increase its interaction with thegender statistics community, especially through the IAEG-GS, to foster awareness of the importance of ICT togender issues.Particular efforts should be made to promote the collection of data on the use of mobile cellular phones byindividuals, especially in developing countries, because in many of these countries they are the most-used formof ICT, especially by girls and women.The Partnership and the TGG should continue working with NSOs to establish, and revise as necessary,internationally comparable gender and ICT indicators that can be used by all countries in their nationallyrepresentative data collection activities, taking into consideration previous efforts, manuals and guidelinesproduced by the Partnership.At national levelNational statistical offices (NSOs), in collaboration with ICT policymakers, should consider the integration ofa gender perspective into ICT data from the first stage of planning data collection, and when setting out theobjectives of a survey or census.Equally important as promoting an awareness of gender is the need for collecting internationally comparablestatistics in order to facilitate sound analysis and the development of effective policies and programmes topromote gender equality.While an ICT survey is the most desirable, as it can contain a large number of questions, for practical and financialreasons, among others, this may not be possible. In that case, the inclusion of ICT questions in a module inexisting surveys, such as in a census or labour force survey, is also valuable.Moreover, the survey(s) should aim to avoid gender bias and ensure that the situation of girls and women isproperly reflected in individual-level ICT data through guidelines, manuals and training of supervisory and fieldpersonnel.Last but not least, NSOs should disseminate widely the results obtained from their data collection.

Chapter I.Introduction

2A. Objective of this reportThis report constitutes part of the efforts of thePartnership on Measuring ICT for Developmentthrough its Task Group on Gender (TGG) to improvethe availability of internationally comparable sexdisaggregated data, especially in developing countries.In addition to being of interest to the Partnership andnational statistical offices (NSOs), it should also beuseful to all those concerned with ensuring e-inclusionin the information society. The membership of theTGG is led jointly by ITU and UNCTAD, and includesthe UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), the UnitedNations Economic and Social Commission forWestern Asia (ESCWA), the United Nations Economicand Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific(ESCAP),the International Labour Organization (ILO),LIRNEasia, Research ICT Africa (RIA), Women in GlobalScience and Technology (WISAT) and the World WideWeb Foundation. To achieve its goals, the Task Groupalso collaborates with other organizations, includingthe IAEG-GS and the Women, ICT, and Development(WICTAD) International Forum.The report seeks to achieve the following objectives:· Take stock of existing ICT indicators disaggregatedby sex, assess data availability and identify maingaps, at the country and regional levels, basedon an evaluation of needs and demand for suchindicators; and· Identify areas covered, as well as potential newareas where sex-disaggregated data are desirable,determine the methodological work needed todevelop relevant indicators and address data gaps.It pays special attention to identifying indicatorsrelevant to gender and ICT in developing countriesand represents the first step in the work of the TGG.The second stage will be to develop the statisticalstandards related to new proposed indicators anddefine priority areas for measurement, in consultationwith countries and relevant existing expert groups.B. The need for genderstatisticsThe main reason for defining and collecting genderstatistics on ICT is to identify and document variationsin access to and use of ICT by sex in order to informMeasuring ICT and Gender: An Assessmentnational policy and set international policy goals.The collection and analysis of ICT gender statisticsis a necessary prerequisite for the achievement of aglobally equitable information society.Men and women the world over have differentrealities, roles, positions and constraints. Too oftenthe situation of men is taken to be the norm forboth men and women, thus ignoring the differencesbetween them. The 2012 Gender Inequality Index ofthe United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 3shows that no country in the world has achievedgender equality. Most women tend to be poorer thanmen, and in many countries they are less educated.Indeed, the majority of the world’s illiterates arewomen. Women in general tend to earn less, holdfewer positions of power and make fewer decisionsin the family, in businesses, and in political and publiclife. These inequalities affect the ability of women tobenefit equally from the opportunities offered by ICTsand contribute fully to shaping the development of theglobal knowledge economy and society.Redressing gender equalities as a matter of equalrights is not the only reason for addressing genderrelated issues in ICT; there is also a clear economiccase for promoting gender equality. Research showsthat closing gender gaps could lead to substantialincreases in per capita income (United Nations,2013). The roles of women in social developmentare unquestionable, particularly in the education ofchildren, and in ensuring the health and well-beingof their families. In both their social role as familycaretaker and their production roles, women canprofit from ICTs, as these can often obviate the needfor their mobility, help overcome barriers to access toinformation and increase their economic opportunities,thus contributing to poverty alleviation. Many forumshave highlighted the important role that ICTs can playin all aspects of economic and social development.And, undoubtedly, the full participation of both menand women in access to and use of ICTs will increasethe positive impact of these technologies. However,maximizing such participation requires knowledge ofany existing gender inequities.Aggregate data collection masks gender differences,which implies that women’s realities remainunrecorded and are ignored, not only in statistics butalso in policy. This realization underlies the push forgender statistics. As ICTs become increasingly vital toinnumerable aspects of everyday life globally, attentionis being directed to digital divides, among which

Chapter I. Introductionthe gender divide is a major concern.4 Collection ofgender-related ICT statistics is being undertakenin an effort to ensure that the situation of both menand women is reflected in national ICT data in orderto provide the basis for gender-inclusive policy andplanning (UNDESA, 2013).Without data there is no visibility; without visibilitythere is no priorityThe paucity of sex-disaggregated ICT data, particularlyfrom developing countries, makes it difficult, if notimpossible, to make the case to policymakers for theirconsideration of gender-related issues in ICT policies,plans and strategies. The lack of adequate dataresulting from the scarcity of gender statistics affectspolicy and its implementation. Indeed, the dearthof gender-specific data available to policymakersis reflected in the absence of gender awareness inICT and ICT-related policies and in the undertakingof costly gender-related initiatives on the basis ofinsufficient evidence.Internationally comparable ICT gender statistics wouldprovide insight into the use of ICT for economic andsocial development. They would enable a betterunderstanding of the different ways in which menand women experience ICTs and would present amore accurate picture of the scope and intensityof the gender-based digital divide. Such statisticsare necessary to ensure economic efficiency andnational development based on the full utilization ofhuman resources, which is especially important in aglobal knowledge society. The desired result would bethat men and women contribute more equally to thebuilding of national knowledge societies; the cost oftheir not doing so is immense.5The concern for gender and ICT statistics andindicators is broad-based. ICT is not an isolatedarea; it permeates such fields as education, health,governance, agriculture, finance, labour, and scienceand technology, all of which have gender issues. Theoutcome of gender inequities is that ICT policies,strategies, programmes and projects are not genderneutral. ICT impacts men and women differently. Bothtechnology and gender are socially constructed, andsocial attitudes and norms influence the relationshipbetween the two.6 Women face many disadvantageswith regard to new technologies, such as social normsabout ap

C. Evolution of gender-related ICT statistics 3 D. About the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development 4 E. The Partnership Task Group on Gender 5 Chapter II. MeasureMeNt of geNder aNd ICt 7 A. Measurement of gender and ICT within the Partnership and its Task Group o