The Six Secrets of ChangeMichael FullanThe Six Secretsof Change— Fullan, 2008aLearning to Lead ChangeThe Pathways ProblemWhat is Change?The Implementation Dip New materialsNew behaviors/practicesNew beliefs/understanding

The Six Secrets of ChangeChange Insights The implementation dip is normal Behaviors change before beliefs The size and prettiness of the planning document is inversely related to thequantity of action and student learning (Reeves, 2002) Shared vision or ownership is more of an outcome of a quality process than it isa precondition Feelings are more influential than thoughts (Kotter, 2008)Implementation— Herold & Fedor, 2008Change SavvyChange savvy leadership involves: Careful entry into the new setting Listening to and learning from those who have been there longer Engage in fact finding and joint problem solving Carefully (rather than rashly) diagnosing the situation Forthrightly addressing people’s concerns Being enthusiastic, genuine and sincere about the change circumstances Obtaining buy-in for what needs fixing Developing a credible plan for making that fix— Herold & Fedor,

The Six Secrets of ChangeInfluences on SchoolCapacity and SchoolStudent Achievement— Newmann, King, & Youngs, 2000School CapacityThe collective power of the full staff to improve student achievement.School capacity includes and requires:, skills, dispositions of individualsProfessional communityProgram coherenceTechnical resourcesShared leadership— Newmann, King, & Youngs, 2000What is Collaboration?A systematic process in which we work together, interdependently, to analyze andimpact professional practice in order to improve our individual and collective results.— Dufour, Dufour, & Eaker, 2002Tri-Level Reform— Fullan, 2005Michael Fullan20083

The Six Secrets of ChangeManaging ChangeThe performance of the top school systems in the world suggest three things thatmatter most:1. Getting the right people to become teachers2. Developing them into effective instructors3. Ensuring that the system is able to deliver the best possible instruction for everychild (intervene early to address gaps)— Barber & Mourshed, 2007Managing ChangeIn viewing the video clip on managing change, use the P-M-I to identify: What is a Plus What is a Minus What is

The Six Secrets of ChangeSecret One: Love your EmployeesExplore the importance of building the school by focusing on both the teachers andstaff, and students and the community. The key is enabling staff to learn continuously.Evidence will be provided from successful business companies as well as from education.Theory X Assumptions The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it ifhe or she can. Because of their dislike for work, most people must be controlled andthreatened before they will work hard enough. The average human prefers to be directed, dislikes responsibility, isunambiguous, and desires security above everything else.— McGregor, 1960Theory Y Assumptions If a job is satisfying, then the result will be commitment to the organization. The average person learns under proper conditions not only to accept but toseek responsibility. Imagination, creativity, and ingenuity can be used to solve work problems by alarge number of employees.— McGregor, 1960Michael Fullan20085

The Six Secrets of ChangeDimensions of Relational CoordinationRelationshipsAmericanSouthwestShared goals“Ninety percent of the ramp employeesdon’t care what happens, even if the wallsfall down, as long as they get their check.”“I’ve never seen so many people workso hard to do one thing. You see peoplechecking their watches to get the ontime departure then it’s over andyou’re back on time.”Shared knowledgeParticipants revealed little awareness of theoverall process. They typically explained theirown set of tasks without reference to theoverall process of flight departures.Participants exhibited relatively clearmental models of the overall process —an understanding of the links betweentheir own jobs and the jobs of otherfunctions. Rather than just knowing whatto do, they knew why, based on sharedknowledge of how the overall processworked.Mutual respect“There are employees working here whothink they’re better than other employees.Gate and ticket agents think they’re betterthan the ramp. The ramp think they’re betterthan cabin cleaners — think it’s a sissy,woman’s job. Then the cabin cleaners lookdown on the building cleaners. Themechanics think the ramp are a bunch ofluggage handlers.“No one takes the job of another personfor granted. The skycap is just as criticalas the pilot. You can always count on thenext guy standing there. No onedepartment is any more important thananother.”Frequent and timelycommunication“Here you don’t communicate. Andsometimes you end up not knowing things Everyone says we need effectivecommunication. But it’s a low priority inaction The hardest thing at the gateswhen flights are delayed is to getinformation.”“There is constant communicationbetween customer service and the ramp.When planes have to be switched andbags must be moved, customer servicewill advise the ramp directly or throughoperations.” If there’s an aircraft swap“operations keeps everyone informed. It happens smoothly.”Problem-solvingcommunication“If you ask anyone here, what’s the lastthing you think of when there’s a problem, Ibet your bottom dollar it’s the customer. Andthese are guys who work hard every day.But they’re thinking, how do I keep my assout of the sling?”“We figure out the cause of the delay.We do not necessarily chastise, thoughsometimes that comes into play. It is amatter of working together. Figuring outwhat we can learn. Not finger pointing.”Communications— Gittell,

The Six Secrets of ChangeMotivational WorkCharacteristics of Firmsof Endearment (FoEs) Meaningful, accomplishable work Enabling development Sense of camaraderie Being well ledWhat we call a humanistic company is run in such a way that its stakeholders —customers, employees, suppliers, business partners, society, and many investors —develop an emotional connection with it, an affectionate regard not unlike the waymany people feel about their favourite sports teams. Humanistic companies — orfirms of endearment (FoEs) — seek to maximize their value to society as a whole,not just to their shareholders. They are the ultimate value creators: They createemotional value, experiential value, social value, and of course, financial value.People who interact with such companies feel safe, secure, and pleased in theirdealings. They enjoy working with or for the company, buying from it, investing init, and having it as a neighbour.— Sisodia, Wolfe, & Sheth, 2007FoEs Performance Over a ten-year horizon, FoEs outperformed the Good to Great companies:1,026 percent return versus 331 percent (a 3-to-1 ratio). Over five years, FoEs returned 128 percent, compared to 77 percent by theGood to Great companies (a 1.7-to-1 ratio).— Sisodia, Wolfe, & Sheth, 2007Reflection on Content:(Three-Person-Interview)In groups of three discuss the following questions:1. Who are your stakeholders?2. What does your organization believe in and stand for?3. What conditions do you need to create a Theory Y (FoE) environment?WorksheetMichael Fullan20087

The Six Secrets of ChangeSecret Two: Connect Peers with PurposePurposeful peer interaction within the school is crucial. Student learning andachievement increase substantially when teachers work in learning communities supported byschool leaders who focus on improvement.Jersey VideoWhy is this a positive example of teaching connecting with peers?Knowledge SharingLiteracy Learning FairLearning Fair Outcomes Forces schools to explain themselves Time for celebrating the work of the year Learn new ideas from other schools Friendly competition to outdo each other Fosters district identity Knowledge flows as people pursue and continuously learn what works best Identity with an entity larger than oneself expands the self into powerfulconsequences.Results of Connecting— Fullan, 2008aWe-We Commitment8What are your two best strategies for connecting peers?

The Six Secrets of ChangeSecret Three: Capacity Building PrevailsThe most effective strategies involve helping teachers and principals develop theinstructional and management of change skills necessary for school improvement. The role ofassessment for learning is essential in order to link data on learning to instructional practicesthat achieve student results.Capacity BuildingCapacity building concerns competencies, resources, and motivation. Individuals andgroups are high on capacity if they possess and continue to develop these threecomponents in concert.— Fullan, 2008aJudgmentalismJudgmentalism is not just perceiving something as ineffective, but doing so in apejorative and negative way.— Fullan, 2008aNon-JudgmentalismFocused on improvement in the face of ineffective performance rather than labelingor categorizing weaknesses.— Fullan, 2008aFear Prevents Acting onKnowledgeWhen people fear for their jobs or their reputation it is unlikely that they will takerisks. Fear causes a focus on the short-term to neglect of the mid or longer term.Fear creates a focus on the individual rather than the group. Teamwork suffers.Lincoln on TemperanceAssume to dictate to his judgment, or command his action, or mark him to be oneto be shunned and despised, and he will retreat within himself, close all avenues tohis head and his heart; and tho your cause be naked truth itself, transformed to theheaviest lance harder than steel can be made, and tho you throw it with more thanHerculean force and precision, you shall no more be able to pierce him than topenetrate the hard shell of a tortoise with a rye straw.— Quoted in Miller, 2002, pp. 148-149Lincoln on SlaveryWe can succeed only in concert. It is not ‘can any of us imagine better’, but ‘canwe all do better.’— Quoted in Miller, 2002, pp. 224; italics in originalMichael Fullan20089

The Six Secrets of ChangeJudgmentalismIs it possible to perceive something as ineffective and not be judgmental about it?Letter off A, B Pick any of the four quadrants that represents a situation that you haveexperienced Make a few notations within the quadrant Do a two-step interview with your partner A, BFEELINGFEEDBACKIndirectDirectBelittledNot BelittledAs a leader Capacity Building10 Practice non-judgmentalism when you are giving feedback Practice non-defensiveness when you are receiving feedbackPeople who thrive here have a certain humility. They know they can get better;they want to learn from the best. We look for people who light up when they arearound other talented people.— Taylor & LaBarre,

The Six Secrets of ChangeSecret Four: Learning Is the WorkProfessional development (PD) in workshops and courses is only an input to continuouslearning and precision in teaching. Successful growth itself is accomplished when the culture ofthe school supports day-to-day learning of teachers engaged in improving what they do in theclassroom and school.Culture of LearningIf we were to identify the single greatest difference between Toyota and otherorganizations (including service, healthcare, and manufacturing), it would be thedepth of understanding among Toyota employees regarding their work.— Liker & Meier, 2007Toyota’s ApproachThe essence of Toyota’s approach to improving performance consists of threecomponents:1. Identify critical knowledge2. Transfer knowledge using job instruction3. Verify learning and success— Liker & Meier, 2007Breakthrough— Fullan, Hill, & Crévola, 2006The Container StoreThe Container Store provides 235 hours of training to first-year employees and 160hours every year thereafter, all with a view to creating a culture where peoplelearn from experience.— Sisodia, Wolfe, & Sheth, 2007Non-Judgmentalism AgainThe objective is not to identify whom to blame for a problem, it is to find out wherethe system failed.— Liker & Meier, 2007Michael Fullan200811

The Six Secrets of ChangeSecret Five: Transparency RulesOngoing data and access to seeing effective practices is necessary for success. It takesup the dilemmas of ‘de-privatizing practice’ in which it becomes normal and desirable forteachers to observe and be observed in teaching facilitated by coaches and mentors.Getting Started withTransparencyData walls — elementary teachersData walls — high school teachers— Liker & Meier, 2007MedicineTo fix medicine we need to do two things: measure ourselves, and be open aboutwhat we are doing.— Gawande, 2007Classroom ImprovementTransparency non-judgmentalism good help classroom improvement— Fullan,

The Six Secrets of ChangeStatistical NeighborsAs part of the overall strategy, Ontario created a new database, which is called “Statistical Neighbors.” All fourthousand schools are in the system. They are organized into four bands — students and schools from the mostdisadvantaged communities, two bands in the middle, and a fourth comprising students in the least disadvantagedcommunities. Schools can be examined using other categories as well — size of school, percentage of ESLstudents, geographical setting (rural or urban), and so on.We are now in a position to use the data, and here is where the nuance of Secret Five comes into play. Simplypublishing the results can possibly do some good, but more likely than not would have negative side effects.Instead we operate under a set of ground rules:1. We do not condone league tables — displaying the results of every school from lowest to highest scoreswithout regard to context. Instead we do the following:a. Help schools compare themselves with themselves — that is, look at what progress they are makingcompared to previous years;b. Help schools compare themselves with their statistical neighbors, comparing apples with apples;c.Help schools examine their results relative to an external or absolute standard, such as how other schoolsin the province are faring and how close they are to achieving 100 percent success in literacy andnumeracy.2. We work with the seventy-two school districts and their four thousand schools to set annual “aspirationaltargets” based on their current starting point.3. We focus on capacity building, helping districts identify and use effective instructional practices.4. Although we take each year’s results seriously, we are cautious about drawing conclusions about any particularschool based on just one year’s results. We prefer to examine three-year trends to determine if schools ordistricts are “stuck” or “moving” (improving or declining).5. For schools and districts that are continuing to under-perform, we intervene with a program called OntarioFocused Intervention Partnership (OFIP), which provides targeted help designed to improve performance.There are currently about 850 of the 4,000 schools in this program. We are careful not to stigmatize schools inOFIP (in keeping with Secret Three), because doing so gets people sidetracked into issues of blame.Overall, we think that this approach to data-informed development is effective. There is quite a lot of pressure builtinto the process, but that pressure is based on constructive transparency. When data are precise, presented in anon-judgmental way, considered by peers, and used for improvement as well as for external accountability, theyserve to balance pressure and support. This approach seems to work. After five years of flatlined results beforebeginning the program (1999 – 2003), the province’s literacy and numeracy scores have climbed by some tenpercentage points, with OFIP schools improving more than the average.In England, schools and LAs can also track their performance through a data system called RAISE in which they cantrace their performance over time.— Fullan, 2008aMichael Fullan200813

The Six Secrets of ChangeSecret Six: Systems LearnContinuous learning depends on developing many leaders in the school in order toenhance continuity. It also depends on schools being confident in the face of complexity, andopen to new ideas.Systems LearnThe fact that Toyota can succeed over decades and that the company shows no“leadership effects” — or changes from succession — speaks to building a robustset of interrelated management practices and philosophies that provide advantageabove and beyond the ideas or inspirations of single individuals.Pfeffer & Sutton, 2006CertaintySome people I’ve encountered seem more certain about everything than I amabout anything.— Rubin, 2003WisdomWisdom is using your knowledge while doubting what you know.— Pfeffer & Sutton, 2006Leaders Have to be more confident than the situation warrants. They have to developleadership in others. Be specific about the few things that matter and keeprepeating them.— Pfeffer & Sutton, 2006Systems LearningConfidence but not certitude in the face of complexity. Get comfortable with beinguncomfortable.— Fullan,

The Six Secrets of ChangeLeadershipShackleton VideoWhat evidence did you see of Shackleton’s leadership style?Scott Ambitious Naïve technically Hierarchical Arrogant Wary of colleagues more able thanhimself Indifferent selector Poor trainer Bad safety record Gifted writerShackleton Single-minded Excellent in crisis Technically sensible Gregarious Excellent public speaker Broadly objective Good conceptual planner Effective selector and trainer Good safety record Bored by administration Politically astute— Morrel & Capparell, 2001On Leadership Scott was dour, bullying and controlling; Shackleton was warm, humorous and egalitarian Scott tried to orchestrate every movement of his men; Shackleton gave his men responsibility and some measureof independence. Scott was secretive and untrusting; Shackleton talked openly and frankly with the men about allaspects of the work. Scott put his team at risk to achieve his goals; Shackleton valued his men’s lives above allelse.Scott’s men died. All of Shackleton’s men survived the wreck of their ship, Endurance in the crushing Antarctic ice,stranded twelve thousand miles from civilization with no means of communication. Isolated for almost two yearson an Antarctic ice flow, Shackleton and a few of his men endured an eight-hundred-mile trip across the frigidsouth Atlantic in little more than a rowboat to get help for his men. All twenty-seven men in the crew survived ingood health.— Morrel & Capparell, 2001Shackleton’s LeadershipTraits: Michael Fullan2008Cultivate a sense of compassion and responsibility for others.Once you commit, stick through the tough learning period.Do your part to help create an upbeat environment at work — important forproductivity.Broaden your cultural and social horizons, learning to see things from differentperspectives.In a rapidly changing world, be willing to venture in new directions to seizenew opportunities and learn new skills.Find a way to turn setbacks and failures to your own advantage.Be bold in vision and careful in planning.Learn from past mistakes.Never insist on reaching a goal at any cost; it must be achieved without unduehardship for your staff.— Morrel & Capparell, 200115

The Six Secrets of ChangeWhat’s Worth Fighting1. De-privatize teachingfor in the Principalship:2. Model instructional leadershipGuidelines for Principals3. Build capacity first4. Grow other leaders5. Divert the distractors6. Be a system leader— Fullan, 2008What’s Worth Fighting1. Invest in the instructional leadership of principalsfor in the Principalship:2. Combine direction and flexibilityGuidelines for Systems3. Mobilize the power of data4. Use peers to change district culture5. Address the managerial requirements6. Stay the course— Fullan, 2008Leadership TherapyA. Rowley, 2007The Leadership CircumplexThe circumplex is based upon two related dimensions of leadership behavior — conviction and connection.Conviction measures the following behaviors: The ability to provide a compelling vision; The capacity to manage or lead change; Reality sense — the ability to grasp what is happening in the industry and a commitment to understandingand servicing the needs of the customer; The capacity to display passion, conviction, belief and authenticity; and A commitment to continuous learning.Connection measures the following: Self-awareness — an understanding of how your behavior affects others and how to change it according tothe person/situation; Effective communication — you demonstrate a sense of power and competence through communication; Developing people — you put developing people as a priority and ensure that people have personaldevelopment plans; and The capacity to revitalize the business

The Six Secrets of ChangeBarber, M., & Mourshed, B. (2007). How the best performing schools come out on top. London: McKinsey Group.Black, P., Wiliam, D., Harrison, C., Lee, C., & Marshall, M. (2003). Working inside the black box. London: King’s College.Collins, J. (2001). Good to great. New York: Harper Collins.Dufour, R., Dufour, R., Eaker, B., & Many, T. (2005). Learning by doing: A handbook for professional learning communities atwork. Bloomington, IL: Solution Tree.Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Fullan, M. (2003a). Change forces with a vengeance. London: RouthledgeFalmer.Fullan, M. (2003b). The moral imperative of school leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Toronto: Ontario Principals’Council.Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability: System thinkers in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press; Toronto: OntarioPrincipals’ Council.Fullan, M. (2006b). Turnaround leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change 4th edition. New York: Teachers College Press.Fullan, M. (2008a). The six secrets of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Fullan, M. (2008b). What’s worth fighting for in the principalship. 2nd Edition. New York: Teachers College Press; Toronto:Ontario Principals’ Council.Fullan, M., Hill, P., & Crévola, C. (2006). Breakthrough. Thousand Oak, CA: Corwin Press; Toronto: Ontario Principals’ CouncilFullan, M., & St. Germaine, C. (2006). Learning places. Thousand Oak, CA: Corwin Press; Toronto: Ontario Principals’ Council.Gawande, A. (2007). Better: A surgeon’s notes on performance. New York: Metropolitan Books.Gittell, J. (2003). The Southwest Airlines way. New York: McGraw-Hill.Heifetz, R., & Linsky, M. (2004). Leadership on the line. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Herold, D. & Fedor, D. (2008)Change the way you lead change. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Kotter, J. (2008). A sense of urgency. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.Liker, J. & Meier, D. (2007). Toyota talent. New York: McGraw-Hill.Livsey, R.C., & Palmer, P.J. (1999). The courage to teach: A guide for reflection and renewal. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Mauer, R. (1996). Beyond the wall of resistance. Austin, TX: Bard Books.McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.Morrell, M., & Capparell, S. (2001). Shackleton’s way. New York: Viking Penguin.Newmann, F., King, B., & Youngs, P. (2000, April). Professional development that addresses school capacity. Paper presentedat the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association, New Orleans.Pfeffer, J., & Sutton, R. (2000). The knowing-doing gap: How smart companies turn knowledge into action. Boston: HarvardBusiness School Press.Pfeffer, J. & Sutton, R. (2006). Hard facts, dangerous half-truths and total nonsense. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Rowley, A. (2007). Leadership therapy. New York. MacMillan.Rubin, R. (2003). In an uncertain world. New York: Random House.Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline. New York: Doubleday.Sisodia, R., Wolfe, D., & Sheth, J. (2007). Firms of Endearment. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing.Michael Fullan200817

The Six Secrets of ChangeMichael Fullan is the former Dean of the Ontario Institute for Studiesin Education of the University of Toronto. Recognized as aninternational authority on educational reform, Michael is engaged intraining, consulting, and evaluating change projects around the world.His ideas for managing change are used in many countries, and hisbooks have been published in many languages.Michael Fullan led the evaluation team which conducted the four-year assessment of the NationalLiteracy and Numeracy Strategy in England from 1998-2003. In April 2004 he was appointed SpecialAdvisor to the Premier and Minister of Education in Ontario.Production and technology for this presentation provided by Claudia Cuttress & Associates.Graphics and animations by www.blinkblink.toSpecial thanks to Eleanor Adam and Joanne Quinn for training design

depth of understanding among Toyota employees regarding their work. — Liker & Meier, 2007 Toyota’s Approach The essence of Toyota’s approach to improving performance consists of three components: 1. Identify critical knowledge 2. Transfer knowledge using job instruction 3. Verify learning and success — Liker & Meier, 2007 Breakthrough