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1998 by 3A CorporationAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of thePublisher.Published by 3A CorporationShoei Bldg., 6-3, Sarugaku-cho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0064, JapanISBN4-88319-107-9 C0081First published 1998Printed in Japan

FOREWORDAs the titleMintld no Nihongoindicates, this book has been designed to makethe study of Japanese as enjoyable and interesting as possible for students and teachersalike. Over three years in the planning and compilation, it stands as a completetextbook in itself while acting as a companion volume to the highly regardedShinNihongo no Kiso.As readers may know,Shin Nihongo no Kisois a comprehensive introductionto elementary Japanese that serves as a highly efficient resource enabling studentswishing to master basic Japanese conversation to do so in the shortest possible time.As such, although it was originally developed for use by AOTS’s technical trainees, itis now used by a wide range of people both in Japan and abroad.The teaching of Japanese is branching out in many different ways. Japaneseeconomic and industrial growth has led to a greater level of interchange between Japanand other countries, and non-Japanese from a wide variety of backgrounds have cometo Japan with a range of different objectives and are now living within localcommunities here. The changes in the social milieu surrounding the teaching ofJapanese that have resulted from this influx of people from other countries have in turninfluenced the individual situations in which Japanese is taught. There is now a greaterdiversity of learning needs, and they require individual responses.It is against this background, and in response to the opinions and hopes expressedby a large number of people who have been involved in the teaching of Japanese formany years both in Japan and elsewhere, that 3A Corporation proudly publishesMinna no Nihongo. While the book continues to make useof the clarity and ease ofunderstanding provided by the special features, key learning points and learningmethods ofShin Nihongo no Kiso,no Nihongo havethe scenes, situations and characters inMinnabeen made more universal in order to appeal to a wider range oflearners. Its contents have been enhanced in this way to allow all kinds of students touse it for studying Japanese with pleasure.Minna no Nihongois aimed at anyone who urgently needs to learn tocommunicate in Japanese in any situation, whether at work, school, college or in theirlocal community. Although it is an introductory text, efforts have been made to makethe exchanges between Japanese and foreign characters in the book reflect Japanese

social conditions and everyday life as faithfully as possible. While it is intendedprincipally for those who have already left full-time education, it can also berecommended as an excellent textbook for university entrance courses as well as short term intensive courses at technical colleges and universities.We at 3A Corporation are continuing actively to produce new study materialsdesigned to meet the individual needs of an increasingly wide range of learners, andwe sincerely hope that readers will continue to give us their valued support.In conclusion, I should like to mention the extensive help we received in thepreparation of this text, in the form of suggestions and comments from variousquarters and trials of the materials in actual lessons, for which we are extremelygrateful. 3A Corporation intends to continue extending its network of friendship allover the world through activities such as the publishing of Japanese study materials,and we hope that everyone who knows us will continue to lend us their unstintingencouragement and support in this.Iwao OgawaPresident, 3A CorporationMarch 1998

EXPLANATORY NOTESI. StructureThe learning materials consist of a Main Text, a Translation and Grammar Text anda set of cassette tapes. The Translation and Grammar Text is currently available inEnglish. Versions in other languages will be published shortly.The materials have been prepared with the main emphasis on listening andspeaking Japanese; they do not provide instruction in reading and writing hiragana,katakana or kanji.II. Content and Method of Use1. Main Text1) Japanese PronunciationThis section gives examples of the main characteristics of Japanesepronunciation.2) Classroom instructions, greetings, numeralsThese are useful for understanding classroom instructions and dailygreetings. They are frequently used by teachers in class.3) LessonsThere are 25 lessons, and each contains the following: Sentence PatternsBasic sentence patterns are shown in the order they appear.(D Example SentencesA small dialogue in the style of a question and answer is given to showhow the sentence patterns are used in practical conversation. Newadverbs, conjunctions, and other grammatical points are also introduced.(3)ConversationIn the conversations, various foreign people staying in Japan appear in avariety of situations. The conversations include everyday expressions andgreetings. As they are simple, learning them by heart is recommended. Iftime allows, students should try developing the conversation by applyingthe reference words given in each lesson of the Translation and GrammarText in order to maximize their communication skills.

DrillsThe drills are divided into three levels: A, B, and C.Drill A is visually designed in chart style to help understanding of thegrammatical structure. The style helps students to learn systematically thebasic sentence patterns through substitution drills, and applying verbforms and conjugations following the chart.Drill B has various drill patterns to strengthen students’ grasp of thebasic sentence patterns. Follow the directions given in each practice.Drills marked with aa-sign use pictorial charts.Drill C is given in discourse style to show how the sentence patternsfunction in actual situations, and to enhance practical oral skills. Do notsimply read, repeat and substitute, but try making your own substitution,enrich the content, and develop the story. PracticeTwo kinds of practices are given: one type for listening ( [jjjg]) and theother for grammar practice.The listening practice is further divided into a question asking for apersonal answer, and a question confirming the key point of the givendiscourse. The listening practices are designed to strengthen students’aural skills, while the grammar practices check comprehension ofvocabulary and the grammar points in the lessons studied.The reading practices mostly require students to give a true or falseresponse after reading a simple story compiled with words and sentencepatterns from the lessons learned. ReviewThis is provided to enable students to go over the essential points everyseveral lessons studied. SummaryAt the end of the Main Text, a summary of grammatical points is given,such as the use of the particles, verb forms, adverbs and conjunctions,using example sentences appearing in the respective lessons. IndexThis includes classroom instructions, greetings, numerals, new

vocabulary, and idiomatic expressions introduced in each lesson of theMain Text.2. Translation and Grammar Text1) Explanations of the general features and pronunciation of Japanese aswell as the Japanese writing system2) Translation of classroom instructions and greetings in the Main Text3) The following are given in each of the 25 lessons. new vocabulary and its translation(Dtranslation of Sentence Patterns, Example Sentences, andConversation(D useful words related to the lesson and small pieces of informationon Japan and the Japanese explanation of essential grammar appearing in the lesson4) Translation of the particles, how to use the forms, adverbs and adverbialexpressions, and various conjugations found at the back of the MainText5) Tables showing how to express numbers, time, periods of time, andcounters, etc. including items which the textbook does not cover3. Cassette TapesOn the cassette tapes, Vocabulary, Sentence Patterns, Example Sentences,Drill C, Conversation and listening comprehension questions of the Practicesection are recorded.Students should pay attention to the pronunciation and intonation whenlistening to the Vocabulary, Sentence Patterns and Example Sentences. Whenlistening to Drill C and Conversation, try to get accustomed to the naturalspeed of the language.4. Kanji Usagel' i i X i ir jL1) Kanji usage is based onCIf iiwhich is an official list of the mostcommonly used Chinese characters in Japan.c* (Dc c(words which are made by a combination of two or more kanjiand have a special reading) shown in the Appendix Chart of

are written in kanji.e.g. Aj4. friendfruitBUM glasses(2) Proper nouns are written with their own Chinese characters even if theirreadings are non-standard.e.g. A . OsakaNaraffi.M'lkKabuki2) For freeing students from confusion, some words are given in kana althoughCl-5 i i«'Vi )Cthey are included inZ e.g. A (7)9and its Appendix Chart.possess ntzX-Lexist)perhapsi(Bt S)yesterday3) Numbers are principally shown in Arabic numerals.e.g. 9 b# 9 o’clock4 1H1st April1one (thing)However kanji is used in the following cases.ts t )v t,c*i t, t lu ; ie.g.- AT by oneself — 1 L onetime —APIA ten thousand yen bill5. Miscellaneous1) Words which can be omitted from a sentence are enclosed in square brackets[ ].e.g. All 54[Ml T"f oMy father is 54 years old.2) Synonyms are enclosed in round brackets ( ).e.g. AH (Atz)who3) The part for an alternative word is denoted by —.e.g. —11 t ' ' TA #'oHow would you like ?If the alternative part is a numeral, - is used.e.g.-jsl-years old-R-yen-hours

TO USERS OF THIS TEXTBOOKThe most effective way to study1. Learn each word carefully.The Translation & Grammatical Notes introduces the new words for each lesson.First, listen to the tape and learn these words thoroughly, paying special attentionto the correct pronunciation and accent. Try to make sentences with the newwords. It is important to memorize not only a word itself, but its use in a sentence.2. Practice the sentence patterns.Make sure you understand the meaning of each sentence pattern, and do Drills Aand B until you have mastered the pattern. Say the sentences aloud, especiallywhen doing Drill B.3. Practice the conversation drills.Sentence-pattern practice is followed by conversation practice. The exampleconversations show the various situations in actual daily life in which people fromabroad will often need to use Japanese. Start by doing Drill C to get accustomed tothe pattern. Don’t practice only the dialogue pattern, but try to expand thedialogue. And learn how to communicate suitably according to the situations bypracticing the conversation.4. Listen to the cassette tape repeatedly.When practicing Drill C and Conversation, listen to the tape and say the dialoguealoud to make sure you acquire the correct pronunciation and intonation. Listeningto the tape is the most effective way to get used to the sound and speed of Japaneseand to improve your listening ability.5. Always remember to review and prepare.So as not to forget what you have learned in class, always review it the same day.Finally, do the questions at the end of each lesson in order to check what you havelearnt and to test your listening comprehension. And, if you have time, lookthrough the words and grammar explanation for the next lesson. Basic preparationis necessary for effective study.6. Use what you have learnt.Don’t limit your learning to the classroom. Try to talk to Japanese people. Usingwhat you have just learnt is the best way to progress.If you complete this textbook following the above suggestions, you will haveacquired the basic vocabulary and expressions necessary for daily life in Japan.

CHARACTERS IN THE CONVERSATIONSSato KeikoJapanese, employee of IMCAmerican, employee of IMCJose SantosMaria SantosBrazilian, employee of Brazil AirBrazilian, housewifeKarinaWang XueIndonesian, student at Fuji UniversityChinese, doctor at Kobe HospitalYamada IchiroYamada TomokoJapanese, employee of IMCJapanese, bank clerk

Matsumoto TadashiMatsumoto YoshikoKimura IzumiJapanese,Japanese, housewifeJapanese, announcerdepartment chief at IMCOther Characters-WattBritish,professor at Sakura UniversitySchmidtLeeGerman,Korean,engineer at Power Electric Companyresearch worker at AKCWTeresaTaroBrazilian, schoolgirl (9 yrs.),Japanese, schoolboy (8 yrs.),daughter of Jose & Maria Santosson of Ichiro & Tomoko Yamada.GuptaThawaphonIndian, employee of IMCThai, student at Japanese language schoolIMC (computer software company) 8AKC (T'/ TVsf -tr V 9Asia Research Institute)

CONTENTSINTRODUCTION.2I. General Features of JapaneseII. Japanese ScriptIILPronunciation of JapanesePRELIMINARY LESSON .8I. PronunciationII. Classroom InstructionsIILDaily Greetings and ExpressionsIV. NumeralsTERMS USED FOR INSTRUCTION .10ABBREVIATIONS.11LESSON 1.12I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. NjT-tSentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. N2C v fc 'j i-tiXConversation:3. S/How do you do?IILReference Words & Information:COUNTRY, PEOPLE & LANGUAGE4. Nt5. NiCO N26.bLESSON 2.18I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. 3 ft/-tf1/&ftSentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. Z D N/ D N/& n NConversation:This is just a tokenIII. Reference Words & Information:FAMILY NAMES4.Sitf\ S2tf'5. NiCO N26. * 1Ti-t'

LESSON 3.I. VocabularyIV. Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1.Sentence Patterns& Example SentencesConversation:4b/&b2. Nil! N2 (place)T'-tI’ll take it3. XZ/Xt, b& Information:IILReference WordsDEPARTMENT STORE4. NiCO N25. The Z / % / 1h /system ofdemonstrative words6.I. VocabularyIV.Grammar Explanation"JII. TranslationSentence Patterns& Example tf/C/vi itz/What are your opening hours?IILReference Words&gj& Information:& LETTERVt-ttLTlt:4. N (time) 15.Ni7)' bVN2 i T"6. NiL N27. StiLESSON 5.I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. N (place) 'n ? iSentence Patterns-f/& Example SentencesConversation:2.L'Z M t ftSt-ti/L/Does this train go to Koshien?IILReference Words& Information:3. N (vehicle) T ill t t/ktir/NATIONAL HOLIDAYS4. N (person/animal)5. t 'o6. sJ: V

LESSON 6.42I. VocabularyIV.Grammar Explanation1L Translation1. N V (transitive)Sentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. N iConversation:3. fa LWon’t you join us?lll.Reference Words & Information:FOOD4.lit/C andI-5. N (place) T V67. V L J: 98.LESSON 7.48I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. N (tool/means) T' VSentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. “Word/Sentence” 11WTi-4'Conversation:HelloIII. Reference Words & Information:FAMILY3. N (person)l- If 4. N (person)l-t bKsetc., etc.5.4? V l tzLESSON 8.54I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. TranslationSentence Patterns & Example Sentences1. Adjectives2. Nil 4--adj[fc1 T-tNilConversation:It’s almost time to leave')T't3. 4'-adj 4' N '-adj ( ''' ') NIII. Reference Words & Information:COLOR & TASTE'-adj4. KT5. Nil6. Nil!7. S. , S28.-ft'NjT-f’J'

LESSON 9.I. VocabularyII. Translation60IV. Grammar Explanationi.Nrf h ‘J i'f/bt't) itSentence Patterns & Example SentencesL'nf t-Conversation:That’s too badIII. Reference Words & Information:2. ) L N3. t /ti tz /tz L/'jr 1/MUSIC, SPORTS & MOVIES4. Sirf'b, Si5.ITLESSON 10 .66I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. Nrf h 'j i-f/oi-fSentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. Ni (place) U Njtf* ‘j iConversation:3. Ni 11 N2 (place) I - h 'J i -f/t' i -fDo you have chili sauce in this store?III. Reference Words & Information:INSIDE THE HOUSE/\' i -f4. Ni (thing/person/place) CD N2 (position)5. N.N26. Word (s)T"f7. -f 'J 7-xii * IJ itf/Ctf'LESSON 11 .I. VocabularyII. Translation72IV.Grammar Explanation1. Saying numbers i- \ -Sentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. Quantifier (period) 12 - @ VConversation:3. Quantifier tz (t /N tz (tPlease send this by sea mailIII. Reference Words & Information:MENULESSON 12 .78I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. TranslationSentence Patterns & Example SentencesConversation:How was the Festival?III. Reference Words & Information:FESTIVALS & PLACES OF NOTE1. Past tense of noun sentences and '-adjective sentences2. Past tense of t -adjective sentences3. Ni(i N2J:adjective T'f4. Ni L N2 L Y. % badjective Tt/'"‘N1/N2 CO (I 9 adjective5. N1 [ o t]T n/ z/tib/\ N2#*l \ (fX adjectiveT'fadjectiveTX

84LESSON 13 .I. VocabularyII. TranslationIV. Grammar Explanationl.Ntf*'T'fSentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. Vi-f-form /; TtConversation:3.ViN (place) -formI-Charge us separatelyt'f/kt't/n'li'fIILReference Words & Information:TOWN4. NIC V/N V5. if Z 1 *) t 6. ZHXLESSON 14 .90I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. Verb conjugationSentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. Verb groupsConversation:3. Verb T-formTo Umeda, pleaseIILReference Words & Information:STATION4. VT-form( tz'S 5. VT-form v' i *t6. Vi-f-formililt'7. Si N\ S28. Ntf* VLESSON 15 .96I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. VT-form tSentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. VT-formli oiti-tfXConversation:3. VT-formTell me about your familyIILReference Words & Information:4. VT-form off5.iOCCUPATIONSLESSON 16 .102I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. VT-form,[VT-form], Sentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. v-adj ( y )Conversation:3. NHOW TO WITHDRAW MONEYft-adj IM]Tell me how to use this machineIILReference Words & Information:— T, 4. ViT-form ' b, V25. Nil! N2 n* adjective6. if 7 - oT7.N

LESSON 17I. VocabularyII. Translation108IV.Grammar Explanation1. Verb tk' '-formSentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. V '-form 'T tzi5 Conversation:3. V o-form 'ltKIf *)* &&What seems to be the problem?III.Reference Words & Information:BODY & ILLNESS4. V4' '-formic { T5. N (object) (16. N (time) i TI2 vLESSON 1ft.114I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. Verb dictionary formSentence Patterns & Example SentencesConversation:What is your hobby?III.Reference Words & Information:ACTIONS2. NTit-V dictionary form N3' btzl cr V dictionary formZlT-f4. Vi dictionary formn r v2 iQuantifier (period)5. 4'6. -tf ULESSON 19.I. VocabularyII. Translation120IV.Grammar Explanation1. Verb tz-formSentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. V/c-form Z Conversation:3. V/c-formAs for my diet, I’ll start it tomorrow&') i'f, V/c-form‘JLt4. '-adj ( y9 — III. Reference Words & Information:TRADITIONAL CULTURE & ENTERTAINMENTNd5. -f 1 T'tLESSON 20. .126I. VocabularyII. TranslationSentence Patterns & Example SentencesConversation:What will you do for the summer vacation?III. Reference Words & Information:HOW TO ADDRESS PEOPLEIV.Grammar Explanation1. Polite style and plain style2. Proper use of the polite style or the plainstyle3. Conversation in the plain style

132LESSON 21.I. VocabularyIV.Grammar Explanationb tII. TranslationSentence Patterns & Example SentencesConversation:I think so, tooIILReference Words & Information:POSITIONS IN SOCIETY1. plain form2. “S”plain form3. Vplain form x-adjti -adj plain formNtin?-n4. N. (place) T N21h {) 115. N (occasion) T6. NT t V7. Vtn '-form 'v ' .LESSON 22. .138I. VocabularyII. TranslationIV.Grammar Explanation1. Noun modificationSentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. Noun modification by sentencesConversation:3. Ntf*What kind of apartment would you like?4. V dictionary formIILReference Words & Information:CLOTHES144lesson 23.I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. V dictionary form \Sentence Patterns & Example SentencesV iA'-formConversation: v-adjHow can I get there?IILReference Words & Information:ROAD & TRAFFIC')tc -adj tCNCO2. V dictionary form Wfz- form3. V dictionary form 4. N ' adjective/V5. N (place) V (verb of movement)

LESSON 24.I. VocabularyII. TranslationSentence Patterns & Example SentencesConversation:150IV.Grammar Explanation1. tlt-t2.fcifi-rVT-form - t M'itWill you help me?III. Reference Words & Information:EXCHANGE OF PRESENTS Hi-f3. N (person)V4. Interrogative VLESSON 25.156I. VocabularyIV.Grammar ExplanationII. Translation1. plain past form b,Sentence Patterns & Example Sentences2. V/c-formb, Conversation:3. VT-formThank you for having been kind to meIII. Reference Words & Information:LIFE '-adj (— *) — T -adj[&*]-*TNT4. tLand t' b5. NtfSUMMARY LESSON.163I. ParticlesII. How to Use the FormsIII. Adverbs and Adverbial ExpressionsIV. Various ConjunctionsAPPENDICES.172I. NumeralsII. Expressions of timeIII. Expressions of periodIV. CountersV. Conjugation of verbs

INTRODUCTIONI. General Features of Japanese1. Parts of SpeechThe Japanese language is comprised of verbs, adjectives, nouns, adverbs,conjunctions and particles.2. Word OrderA predicate always comes at the end of a sentence. A modifier always comesbefore the word or phrase to be modified.3. PredicateThere are three types of predicates in Japanese: noun, verb and adjective. Apredicate inflects according to whether it is (1) affirmative or negative and(2) non-past or past.Adjectives are divided into two types according to their type of inflection.They are called t '-adjectives and -adjectives.In Japanese, words do not inflect for person, gender or number.4. ParticleA particle is used to show the grammatical relation between words, to showthe speaker’s intention or to connect sentences.5. OmissionWords or phrases are often omitted if they are understood from the context.Even the subject and object of a sentence are often omitted.II. Japanese ScriptThere are three kinds of letters in Japanese: hiragana, katakana and kanji (Chinesecharacters). Hiragana and katakana are phonetic representations of sounds, andeach letter basically corresponds to one mora (a unit of sound. See ID). Kanjiconvey meanings as well as sounds.In Japanese script, all three types of letters are used together. Katakana are usedto write foreign names and loan words. 1945 kanji letters are fixed as essential fordaily use. Hiragana are used to write particles, the inflectable parts of words, etc.Other than these three types of letters, romaji (Roman letters) are sometimes usedfor the convenience of foreigners. You may see romaji at stations and on sign boards. Below are examples of all four types of script.ji; -7- is A,f oA A nonMr. Tanaka is going to the department store with Mr. Miller.AEfco(O- kanjiOsaka - hiraganaA-katakana* i-0romaji)

Ill. Pronunciation of Japanese1. Kana and Morah rV' f1 -linel 7aiu&-line '-line -rowi] X-line ib'-linex X0e& Ta —hiragana scriptkatakana scriptthe Roman alphabetko?X kyo* 7LX 3soshoZ 3 -rowkka*ki 7ku -rows 7-L vir 7sssashisuseitke-b3tz- rowtz 9% *o 7T rfa h% X -f" 3ttachitsutetocho4' -rown* fix 9ta t'ne D /nu(1-rowh11 haU.1- 7"X 'XhifuheII *hoCAJ: tahyoi -rowmi “7maU lJj Z*t *mimuA J: ; 3myo7-rowyb-rowr7 7ya-fa-rowwb 7nafa—nitmef ) rp :x (x x)yu(e)(i)b 7') 'Jrariwa/jK UruO' 'O (1re7) (X X)nomoJt 3yo oro*j ‘Jryarp ‘J x.ryul) x 73ryo 7(i)(u)(e)ofa fagi0 /guBBfa fa f 7'zuif yge-if -fazeZ" 7gofa 7zoo yzuT rdefa Kdon -rowt'lfg -rowzgafa 7*za/c-rowd /daIf-rowbIfbaif fa(1-rowPIf'*paIf fajibipi.V 7"bu 7 puThe katakana letters in thesquare on the right are notin the above table. They areused to write sounds whichare not original Japanesesounds but are needed foruse in loan words.Tbe0 0'X 'Xpefa fafagya SLgyuIXjafa Kp fa SLIf fabo / fa byaCX Kp fabyuIf fapopyafafa7 -j wi7M ti7 -j fijutfrpZLfazLxxxjlfa J: fa agyofa J; 7 3joXf Xfanbyopyu7 fa77 r tsa7 r farptfx fa 3pyoweshechetse7 * wo7 * tsob b tu7x fe7t fo

The Japanese language is based on five vowel sounds: h (a), t' (i), 9 (u), 1L (e)and 1b (o) (see the table on the previous page). All spoken sounds are derivedfrom these five vowels. They are used alone or are attached to either a consonant(e.g., k a #') or a consonant plus the semi-vowel “y” (e.g., k y a Jf’).The exception to this is a special mora, (n), which is not followed by vowels.All of these sounds are of equal length when spoken.[Note 1] A mora is a unit of sound in Japanese.[Note 2] In order to write the Japanese language according to the pronunciation,kana are used. (See “Kana and Mora” on the previous page.) One kana letter or onekana letter accompanied by a small kana letter (e.g., 1* V) basically correspondsto one mora.2. Long VowelsA long vowel is pronounced twice as long as the ordinary vowels &, t ', 9,i. and In. If you count the length of the vowel h as one, the length of thelong vowel is counted as two. This meanskb is one mora long,whereas kb kb is two moras long.Whether a vowel is long or not can change the meaning of the word.e.g.,In If i L (aunt):1Jkb t (grandmother)In L (uncle): In Crf) (snow)kj (grandfather)9 - (courage)1L (picture): 7L ki (yes)Z h (take): Z feZ Z (here): Z } Z 9 (high school)il — K (card)9 9 v— (taxiIT — 7 (tape)/ — h (notebook)(pass) Y’(room): ' ZY’(plain)X—' — (supermarket)[Note]1) How to write the long vowels in hiragana(1) The long vowels of the # -lineAdd kb to the hiragana letters belonging to the # -line.(2) The long vowels of the t '-lineAdd t' to the hiragana letters belonging to the t '-line.(3) The long vowels of the 9 -lineAdd 9 to the hiragana letters belonging to the 9 -line.(4) The long vowels of the X.-lineAdd t ' to the hiragana letters belonging to the X.-line.(exceptions: 9- 7L yes, t2 7L say, Intlki L elder sister)(5) The long vowels of the In -lineAdd 9 to the hiragana letters belonging to the -line.(exceptions: Inln t ' big, In In i' many, Z' far, and some others)

2) How to write the long vowels in katakanaFor all the lines, add3. Pronunciation of A.L never appears at the beginning of a word. It constitutes one mora. Foreasier pronunciation, the way it is said changes according to the sound thatcomes after it.1) It is pronounced /n/ before the sounds in the tz-, tz-, b- and ’j.'-rows.e.g., 11 Lfz\' (opposite)1 LY 9 (sport) Lh (rail)(all)2) It is pronounced /m/ before the sounds in the (1*-, (i - and -rows.e.g.,L LffL (newspaper)iLkAf (pencil)3) It is pronounced /D / before the sounds in thee.g.,TXJ* (weather)9 L\' (destiny)and /'-rows.ItX/#* ( (visit)4. Pronunciation of oappears before a sound belonging to either thetz- or (i -row. Inwriting loan words, it is also used before sounds belonging to the tt-row,/-row, etc. It constitutes one mora and has one mora’s length.e.g.,(subordinate): 3' n #' (commodity price)#' il t' (fire): t' n f t' (applause)51b Y (sound): 1b n Y (husband)(diary)t*(magazine) ' (a cup of )o "J y (glass)5. Pronunciation of Letters Combined with , nX (stamp)L, C, t , I-, /, If, If, "j K (bed)or tor ‘J can combine withor J:,and the two letters together constitute one mora.e.g.,ItK* ( 0umP): ( (hundred)Cj (freedom): CIf X 9v9 (ten)' /C (beauty parlor) : If 1 1 t (hospital)'V (shirt)1b % (tea) «t 9 (today) vp 9 U yp 9 (milk)X 9 (department chief)*J J: 3 9 (travel)6. Pronunciation of the if-rowThe consonant of this row, when it comes at the beginning of a word, ispronounced [g]. In other cases, it is usually pronounced [0], Recently someJapanese do not differentiate between [9] and [0], and always use [9 ].

7. Devoicing of Vowels [i] and [u]The vowels [i] and [u] are devoiced and not heard when they come betweenvoiceless consonants. The vowel [u] of[su] in T'f or is alsodevoiced when the sentence finishes with either or .e.g., 't (like)L/z T't (want to do) 1't (listen)8. AccentThe Japanese language has pitch accent. That is, some moras in a word arepronounced high and others low. The words are divided into two typesaccording to whether a word has a falling pitch or not. Words with a fallingpitch are subdivided into three types according to where the fall in pitchoccurs. The standard Japanese accent is characterized by the fact that thefirst and the second moras have different pitches, and that the pitch neverrises again once it has fallen.[Types of Accent]1) A fall in pitch does not occur.[ 1e.g.,(garden) liffr(nose) ] X. (name) j J(2 /C (Japanese language)2) A fall in pitch comes after the first mora.e.g., me (book)X\L (weather)[“I 1 bMlf o (next month)3) A fall in pitch comes in the word at some place after the second mora.e.g., /cflTLc (egg) U\Z]q (airplane)(teacher)4) A fall in pitch comes after the last mora.e.g., f l(shoes)(flower)U[ [ ][ ](younger brother) (holiday)(nose)” in 1) and “[lp?l (flower)” in 4) are alike, but the type ofaccent is different, because if a particle likeis added after each word 1) ispronounced [ ]tctf'', whereas 4) is pronouncedThe following aresome other examples of words whose meaning differ according to the typeof accent.e.g., IlfLl(bridge): filL(chopsticks)(one) :(location)There are local differences in accent. For example, the accent of the areaaround Osaka is quite different from the standard one. The following areexamples.e.g.,Tokyo accentOsaka accent(standard Japanese accent)J1177T[ira(flower)TR/ *(apple)(music)

9. IntonationThere are three patterns. They are 1) flat, 2) rising and 3) falling. Questionsare pronounced with a rising intonation. Other sentences are usuallypronounced flat, but sometimes with a falling intonation. A falling intonationcan express feelings such as agreement or disappointment, etc.e.g.,m* L fzkkt&mAz Li-To' "7ll I- tT?: , I'l'TtUx.Sato[prising][ \ falling]: I’ll go to see the cherry blossoms with my friends tomorrow.Won’t you come with us, Mr. Miller?Miller[- flat]: Oh, that sounds good.


Minna no Nihongo. While the book continues to make use of the clarity and ease of understanding provided by the special features, key learning points and learning methods of . Shin Nihongo no Kiso, the scenes, situations and characters in . Minna no Nihongo . have been made more universal in order to appeal to a wider range of learners.