157Alexander von Humboldt and Matthew Fontaine Maury two pioneers of marine sciencesGerhard Korturn and Ingo SchwarzIThe United States oceanographer Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873) wa one of thc imponantcorrespondents of thc Prussian natumhst Alexander von Humboldt ( 1769-1859). A\ both arc regarded lli ptonecrs of marine \ciences by the oceanography community, it b wonh having a closer Iookat their intcraction. 1t ts not widcly known that Maury visited Humboldt in Ber1in in 1853 after attendmg thc .,lntcrnattOnal Maritime Meteorological Conference" in Brusseh. Humbo1dt had bccnvery intcrcstcd in allmarine matters ever since his expcdition to America (1799- 1804). ln his ,.Personal narmtive" andin latcr works, Humboldt covered oceanographic queMions in somc detai1, partly using his own scries of regular Observations at sea that included surfacc temperatures. currcnt\ andother matters. Maury, a navy officcr, had a very different, non-acadernie background. As hcad of thcNaval Observatory m Washington, he issucd wind and current charts bascd on ab ,tract Iogs sent tohim both by navy and mcrchant vesscls. Eventually Maury's explanation , grew into a book: this material formed thc nuclcus of his famous ,.Physical Geography of the Sea". This book Wlli editcd andreprinted again and again and trans1ated into many languages. lt was regarded a\ a basic textbook ofoceanography untilthe Britbh ,.Challengcr"-Expcdition (1872-1876) inaugurated a new era in marine scicnces. Apparently, it was Humboldt who suggestcd the tit1e of Maury's main work. perhapsduring their mecting in Bcrlin.Our paper focuscs on thc correspondencc between Humboldt and Maury at a tune when the lattcrhad to strugglc for his scientific rcputation in his own country. Maury had many admtrcn, all overthe world. Howcvcr. his highly specu1ativc and un"ientific approaches and rcligiou\ arguments in"Physical Geography of the Sca" wcre abo widely critici ,ed. Thus. Maury wa., intere\ted in receiving advice and suppon from Humboldt, who was regarded a , the leading European natural scienLi\tofthat time.Maury·., main contributions came too late for Humboldt to incorporatc them into .Co mo\". Nevertheless Humboldt exprc\\ed a vivid interc ,t in Maury's investigations into currents and deep seamorphology 111 connccti()n with thc fiN Atlantic telegraph cable project. This project w:l! a tcchnicaland \Cientific highlight of thc mid 19th century and is also a matter of discus ion in their corre ,pondence.Alexander von Humboldl und Malthew Fountaine Maury - zwei Pioniere der marinen Wissenschaften. Der nordamcrikanische Oteanograph Matthew Fontaine Maury ( 1806- 1873) gehört tuden wichtigen Bricfpannern des preußischen Naturfor chers Alexander von Humboldt ( 1769- 1859).1 Text editor:Jason H. Lindquist, lndiana Uni versity, Bloomington.

158G. Korturn and I. SchwarzDa beide als Ptoniere der Meerc l.undc ange ehcn werden, er,chei nt es angemessen, ihr gemeinsames Wirken näher 1u unter,uchen. Nicht allgemein bekannt 1\t die Tatsache, daß ich Humboldt undMaury 1853 tn Berlin per\önlich begegnet sind, nachdem lel!lerer an der von ihm im wesentlichenorganisierten eNen " Internationalen Konferen1 für Manurne Meteorologte" in Brüssel teilgenommen haue. Humboldt war bereits während seiner amenkamsehen Expedition ( 1799- 1804) an meereskundlichen Fragen hoch interessiert. ln 'e111er Reisebeschretbung "Relation historique du voyage auxregtons equinox tales du Nouveau Conttnent" und 111 päteren Werken behandelte Humboldt meereskundliche Fragen und nuttte dabei eigene Beobachtungen und Me suogen, etwa 7ur Oberflächentemperatur und /U Strömungen.Maury haue als Marineoffitier e111en ntchtakademischen berulltchen Hintergrund. Als Direktor desMarineobservatoriums ui Wash111gton publ11ierte er Wind- und Strömungskarten, die auf Berichtenberuhten. die thm Kapitäne sowohl von Knegs- als auch Handelsschiffen sandten. Die den KartenbeigefUgten Erläuterungen wuchsen bald lU einem Buch an. Auf dtesem Matertal beruhte dann auchMaurys berühmtes Buch .,Physical Geography of the Sea" Dieses Werk erschien in vielen Auflagenund wurde in 1ahlretche Sprachen übersetzt. Es galt als Standardwerk der Meereskunde, bi die Britische "Challenger"-Expcditton ( 1872-1876) em neues Zeitalter der Meereskunde einleitete. Augenscheinlich haue Humboldt den Titel für Maurys Hauptwerk vorgeschlagen, wohl während der Berliner Begegnung.Der vorliegende Aufsatz beschäftigt sich in er ter Linie mit der Korrespondenz zwischen Humboldtund Maury zu e111er Zeit, als der amerikanische Marincofli11cr um sein wissenschaftliches Ansehenin den USA kämpfen mußte. Maury besaß in aller Weh viele Bewunderer, was jedoch nicht bedeutete, daß -.e111e -.pckulativen und unwissenschaftlichen Ansätze und religiösen Deutungen in "PhysicalGeography of the Sea" nicht auch Mark kritisiert wurden. Somit war Maury an Ratschlägen und vorallem an moralischer Unter\tützung durch Humboldt tnh:resstcrt. der als der fUhrende Naturforscherseiner Zeit galt.Maurys wesentliche Beitrüge zur Meereskunde kamen tu spat, um noch 111 Humboldts " Kosmos" ihren Niederschlag zu finden. Ntchtsdestowenigcr druckte Humholdt ei n lebhaftes Interesse an Maury' Unter\uchungen über Meersströmungen und an der Erkundung der submarinen Morphologie aus,die die Verlegung des ersten transatlantischen Telegraphenkahcls vorbereitete. Dieses Projekt wurdeah teehilisehe und wissenschaftliche HöchstletMung in der Mute des 19. Jahrhundert auch in derKorresponden1 :wischen Humboldt und Maury berührt.1. Introduction: Two pioneers of marine sciencesAt the VlJth International Congress on the History of Oceanography in Kaliningrad/Königsberg (September gth to Wh, 2003). a special symposium was heldto commemorate the first " International Maritime Metcorological Conference" inBrussels in 1853. This conference had been organized by the American oceanographer and navy officer Matthew Fontaine Maury, who visited Alexander vonHumbo ldt in Berlin soon after the conference. Becausc Humboldt had al o beeninterested in marine sciences ever since crossing the Atlantic Ocean from Spain toVenezuela in 1799, the hi tory of oceanography may benefit fro m a more detailedstudy of the communication betwee n these outstanding men. Both arc regarded aspioneer of marine sciences, but their background, their careers and characterswere quite different, as were their approaches to lhe study of the ea. The ir interaction ; inc lude letters and other personal communications, as weil as reference toeach other in major works.

Humboldt and Maury - two pioneer of marine ciences159The . cientific relations between Humboldt and Maury were fir t analysedby Korturn ( 1985), who presented some details of their Berlin meeting on September 14th, 1853, and referred to ome of their letters. A y tematic documentationof their correspondence is included in Schwarz (2004), an edition of Humboldt'scorrespondence related to the United States. Humbo ldt liked to call hirnself ,.halfan American", in part becau e two hundred year ago, from May 20th to June 30th,1804, he paid a short visit to the United State on his way back to Europe. Humboldt's visit to the U.S. has been very weil documented by Herman R. Friis( 1959). Thus we know exactly which places he visited and who he met (cp.Schwarz, 200 I). lt seems that Humboldt had not planned his trip to the UnitedStatc long in advance. It was the American consul in Havana who had convincedHumboldt that. with his experience , he would be very welcome in the new Republic. Humboldt cnjoyed his tay during which he met the cientific elite inPhiladelphia, as weil as member of the administration and the president hirnselfin Wa hington. Humboldt saw President Jeffer on several times in the WhiteHouse. Their correspondence between 1804 and 1825 was certainly more ubstanti al and became more widely known than the letters which Humboldt exchangedwith Maury some decades later.Humboldt's stay in the United States was short but it became the basi ofa deep intercst tn thc scientific and political developments in the young Republicon the part of the Pru sian explorer. He wa always eager to get new informationthrough Jettcrs and visitors, and Maury was onl y one of them. Among Humboldt'sAmerican corrcspondcnts we find statesmen Albert Gallatin and James Madi on,explorer John C. Frcmont, historian William H. Prescott, painter George Catlin,a tronomer Benjamin A. Gould, and naturalists Louis Agas iz, Alexander DallasBache and Benjamin Silliman, Sr.Today, two hundred years after his retum to Europe, Humboldt's worldview and his achicvcments as explorer, statesman and author are bcginning to receive new attention in both the Old and the New World.From Humboldt's perspective, the United States - and particularly its cicntists - alway played a special rote. This paper investigates hi relation to oneof the e outstanding U.S. citizens.2. Humboldt and oceanographyHumboldt visited Königsberg severaJ times. ln April and December 1829 he andhis companions passed the city on their way to and from Russia. Five year laterHumboldt went thcrc again as part of the King's suite, taking a Russian steam boatfrom Swinemünde/Swinoujscie. Jn Königsberg he mct thc famous astronomerFriedrich Wilhelm Sessel on August 29th, 1834. On his way back he reali zed inDanzig/Gdansk that he had forgotten his thermometer and so he asked Bessel tosend it to Berlin (cf. Felber 1994, p. 9 1). While on board, he mea ured the urfacetemperature of the Bahic Sea and was able to de cribe an upwelling event off thePommerania coast, which occur there frequently under certain meteorological

160G. Konum and I. Schwauconditions (cp. Kortum!Lehmann 1997). This epi' ode indicates Humboldt's stronginclination towards marine re earch. He was a co,mopohtan gcmu. with a multi-,or better said, a trans-di ciplinary approach to nature and thc world as a whole.This is one rcason why he is still an important \Ource of in-,piratton for any modern scientist with a background in ecology. His long life and thc multitude of subjects and ideas covered in his publications and Ietter' will aJ-,o be studied by coming gencrations. Unity in diversity, as expressed in hi' "Cosmm,", is only one innuential topos. Humboldt did not use the term . geography" very often, and whenhe did, it was mostly in the context of plant ecology. And yet. he can certainly bercgarded as one prominent founder of this modern disciplinc. All Humboldt biographies - and there are many - Iist his contributions to othcr arts and sciences,such as painting, literature, ethnography, cartography, astronomy, botany, medicine, mining and geology, meteorology and others.Oceanography i part of this wide ' pectrum. Humboldt had an emotionalrelation to thc ocean, as he confes ,ed in the final paragraph of his somewhat short,but conci' e marine-sciences ection of hi' .co.,mo.,··. Summariling hi!-. own experience and knowledge around 1845, Humboldt wrote: "A pcculiar predilection forthe sea [in the German original: .eigenthümlichc Vorliebe für das Meer"], and agrateful remembrance of the impression which it has cxc ted in my mind, when 1have seen it in the tropics in the calm nocturnal rest, or in the fury of the tempest,have alone induced me to speak of the individual cnjo)'ment afforded by its aspectbefore I entered upon the consideration of the favorable inllucncc which the proximity of the ocean has incontrovertibly cxercised on thc cultivation of the intellectand character of many nations, by the multiplication of thosc bands which oughtto encircle the whole of humanity [ . ]" (llumboldt 1997, vol. I: 310). Early in his"Personal Narrative", Humboldt record!-. a similar senllment: .From my earliestyouth I had feit an ardent desire to travel into distant regions, which Europeanshad seldom visited [ . ]. Educated in a country which has no direct communication with the colanies of eilher lndia, Jiving amidst mountams. remote from thecoasts, and celebrated for their numerous mines. I feit an incrcasing passion forthe sea, and distant expedition . [ . ) The taste for herbonsat10n. the stud) of geology. rapid cxcursions to Holland, England, and France. w1th the celebrated Mr.George For.ter, who had the happiness to accompan) Captain Cook in his secondexpedition round thc globe, contributed to give a detenmned direction to the planof travel. which I had formed at eighteen year., of agc." (Humboldt/Bonpland1972, vol. I: 3-4.) Some pages later he added: . 1. ] f rom thc nature of my constitution l never was subject to sea-sickness, and fcel an extreme ardour for studyduring thc whole time I am at sca." (Humboldt/Bonpland 1972. vol. 1: 44.) Thefirst volumc of his narrative reads like a log book and 1s a class1C document in thehistory of oceanography containing long passagc., on ocean currents, sea weed andother matters. At sea, Humboldt used his excellcnt marine chronometer and a tronomical instruments as weil as his thermometcr whcncver possible. As a result,his Atlantic crossing from the port of La Corunna in Spain to Cumana inVenetuela (June 51h to July J61h, 1799 via Tenerife) bccame a rescarch cruise. Furthermore, Humboldt crossed the Caribbean scvcral Limes. His observations there

Hu mboldt and Maury- two pioneers of marine sciences161Fig. I: A. v. Humboldt in 1857 (Lithograph after a photograph by Vinzen1 Katzlcr).are less known, as they were not inc luded in the popular German edition of the" Personal Narrative" (Humboldt 1859/ 1860). lt took him 42 days at sea to getfrom Callao in Peru to Acapulco in Mexico (with a stopover in Guayaquil, between January 4th and February 17th, 1803). Hi Pacific ex perie nce was also ofsome consequence, as the cold water current off the Peruvian coast was laternamed the "Humboldt C urrent" (Humboldt-Strom) in German literature. At thebeginning, Humboldt did not like this name, but he later feit flattered.

162G. Korturn and I. SchwarzFig. 2: A. v. Humboldt in his apartment in Berlin, Oranienburger Strasse 67, where he met M. F. Mauryin his library room on September 13th, 1853 (after a watercolour painting by Eduard Hildebrandt, 1856).lncluding his journey back to Europe (from Yeracruz to Havana, March7th to 19th, 1804; from Havana to Philadelphia, April 291h to May 20th, 1804;from Philade lphia to Bordeaux, June 30th to August Ist, 1800) ten percent ofHumboldt's expedition to America was pent on board different vessel . Withmore than 208 total days at sea, the explorer had more ocean experience thanome modern oceanographers. Details of his marine investigations are scatteredthroughout hi works and need further study. To give only an example, it wasHumboldt who first suggested a multi-ship survey of the Gulf Stream area,equipped with state-of-the-art-equipment - an innovati ve idea indeed.ln Germany, the oceanographic community is aware of Humboldt's pioneering role in the development of marine sciences, and a middle-sized researchvessel was named after him (retired from service in August 2004). Geographersand oceanographers, espec ially from Kiel University, have preserved Humboldt'smarine legacy over the decades (Krümme! 1907/1911, Wüst 1959, Dietrich 1970,Korturn 1985 - Korturn 2003, cp. Kohl 1966, Defant 1960 and Engelmann 1969 a).Apart from his "Personal Narrative," we find extensive marine passagesin Humboldt's " Yiews of Nature" (Humboldt 1849 a, Eng!. translations: Humboldt1849 b, Humboldt 1850) and in his monumental "Cosmos" (Humboldt 1845-1 862,Eng!. translations: Humboldt 1846- 1858; Humboldt 1997).

Humboldt and Maury- two pioneers of marine ciences163His marine texts cover physical oceanography (mainly temperatureregime and ocean currents, maritime meteorology, marine biology and marine geology, about which very little was known around 1850). Some detail of Humboldt's views will be discussed below. lt is important to note that Maury's correspondence with Humboldt did not start until 1849 - after the completion of theftrst edition of the "Wind and Current Charts". There are, therefore, no referenceto Maury in Humboldt's publications before that date. Humboldt quotes other authorities in the marine context, especially "An Tnvestigation of the Currents of theAtlantic Ocean·' by the British hydrographer J. Renneil (Rennell 1832). He visitedRenneil in London in J829 in order to obtain his sea surface temperature data.Rennell's theories on Atlantic circulation (ftr t impul e from the Agulhas Currentaraund the Cape of Good Hope) influenced Humboldt and Maury alike. In hisown publications, Humboldt reflects an early stage in the development ofoceanography - the observational phase of the era of circumnavigations. Thus, thepassages on oceanography in the "Personal Narrative" were outdated by the timethe German edition by Hermann Hauff appeared. However, the author declined torevise and update the text which he had written decades before in French. The exten ive marine footnote in the third edition of "Views of Nature" appear to bemore "modern".Maury's approach fascinated Humboldt, who, like Benjamin Franklin andother Americans, feit that the knowledge of the ocean current ystem and its variabi lity would make navigation faster and safer. Today, in an era when scholars arerediscovering Humboldt's merits in general and his contributions to the sciencesin particular, we admire his fresh spirit and inspiration in addressing oceanographic matters. Humboldt made his own Observations and experiments whenever hewas on board a vessel. Even before his departure for America he used the timeaboard the "Pizarro" for an important experiment that is described in hi ,,Per onaJNarrative":"Crossing from Corunna to Ferrol in shallow water, near the WhiteSignal, in the bay, which according to d ' Anville is the Portus Magnus of the Ancients, we made several experiments by means of avaJved thermometrical sounding Iead, on the temperature of theocean, and on the decrement of caJorie in the successive strata ofwater. The thermometer on the bank, and near the surface, wasfrom 12.5 to 13.3 centigrades, while in deep water it constantlymarked 15 or 15.3 , the air being at 12.8 . The celebratedFranklin, and Mr. Jonathan Williams, author of the work which appeared at Philadelphia under the title ThermometricaJ Navigation,were the first to invite the attention of the naturalists to the phenomena of the temperature of the ocean over shoals, and in thatzone of tepid flowing waters, which runs from the Gulf of Mexicoto the banks of Newfoundland, and the northem coasts of Europe.The observation, that the proximity of a sand-bank is indicated by arapid descent of the temperature of the sea at it's surface, is not on-

164G. Korturn and I. Schwarzly intere ting to the naturalbt, but may become al o very importantfor the safety of navigators." (Humboldt, 1972, vol. I: 29-30).Thus, "Humboldt thc Navigator" (cf. Kortum, 200 I a; Kort um, 200 I b) used U.S.sources for hi ocean studies dating from lhe time of his visits to Philadelphia andWa hington in 1804. About half a century later, the Prussian scienti t becameaware of Maury's important researche .3. M. F. Maury, pathfinder of the seaMo t contemporary textbook. on oceanography include an introductory chapteron history, and Maury is mentioned at some length in all of them. Looking at thefew monographs on the hi tory of oceanograph) (Herdman 1923, Schlee 1973,Deacon 1997), we find that Humboldt's contributions are either not considered atall or are reduced to footnotes. Thi is due to different reception of national legacies. In Paffen/Korturn ( 1984) the German tradition was covered in detail, including an appreciation of Humboldt's influence on manne science. Mo. t ources areunaware of the fact that Maury had met Humboldt and that they exchanged Ietter .Hopefully, a new era of global networking will correct the limited scope of currentschotarship aboutthese pioneers in both Germany and the Anglo-Saxon world. Biographies of Maury by Caskie ( 1928), Leighly (lntroduction to Maury 1963),Maury Corbin ( 1888), Lewi ( 1927), Wayland ( 1930), Williams ( 1963), as well ashorter reviews of his life and career (Schumacher 1953, Whippie 1963 and others), concentrate on four major issues: Maury's "Wind and current charts with explanations to accompany lhem", his "The Physical Geography of the Sea and itMeteorology", the Brussels Conference which Maury had organiz.ed, and thetransatlantic ubmarine telegraph line. In fact. all these main aspect of his workare referred to in the correspondence wilh Humboldt.For Humboldt, the ocean was just one object of research among manyothers, lhough it was certainly of great importance to him. For Maury, as a navyman, the sea wa his life. When Maury wa bom on January J4Lh, 1806 in Fredericksburg, Virginia, Humboldt wa already a famous scientist working tagetherwith pecialists on the publication of his findings and Observations from his American expedition. Two days after Maury's birth, Humboldt lecturcd in Berlin on lheindigenous peoples of America and their monumcnts (cf. Biermann/Jahn/Lange1983: 37). Humbo1dt was many years older than Maury, and their personalitieand career differed greatly. Nevertheless, they would later develop a deep appreciation for each other's works.In 1810 Maury's father, a poor farmer, moved westward and settled nearFranklin, Tenne . ee. Today this county is adjacent to lhe Maury and Humboldtcounties; thus Franktin is ,.geographically" honoured by both of them. Maurypent hi youlh and school time near Franklin. He entered lhe U.S. Navy as a midshipman in 1825 and spent most of the next nine year!-. at . ea, crossing lhe Atlanticseveral times, sailing around South America, and going we. tward around the

Humboldt and Maury- two pioneer of marine sciences165Fig. 3: M. F. Maury about the ume he left for the Brussels conference in 1853 (Photograph by Bcndann,Library of Congrc . Wilhams 1963: 29 1).globe. After this circumnavigation, he took a Ionger leave and Started writingabout navigation and nautical astronomy (Maury 1836).ln October 1839 hj right leg was severely injured when his stage coachoverturned en route to New York, where he was to report for duty. He never fullyrecovered from this accident and was no Ionger fit for acti vc duty on a ve el. Oneof his biographers remarked arca Lically that thi accident, which ended Maury'career with the navy, was a troke of Juck for the development of marine cience;eventually, however, Maury was recalled to duty on July Ist, 1842 after a period of

166G . Korturn and I. Schwarz

Humboldt and Maury- two pioneers of mari ne cience167idleness, and he served as Superintendent of the Navy's Depot of Charts and lntruments. This shore-based agency was later reorganized and renamed lhe NavalOb ervatory (after 1866 it was called lhe Hydrographie Office). A uperintendent,Maury wa now in lhe position to combine his nautical a tronomy interests wilhcompilations o f statistical data from log books sent to lhe Ob ervatory. In summary, a Leighly put it in 1963, he tumed his attention from lhe heavens to lhe seaand the atmosphere. Maury introduced special reporting forms (abstract Iogs) formasters of all U.S. vessels; these Iogs had tobe senl for centralized processi ng toWashington. This approach was unique and very helpful in producing wind andcurrent charts for different parts of the oceans. The first set of sheets appeared in1847 and was distributed free of charge to all participants in the project. Over theyear , Maury and his staff received more and more Iogs which were carefully reviewed. In 1851, the publication of ,,Explanations and Sailing Directions to accompany the Wind and Current Charts" began. The 81h edition of this work, enlarged and improvcd, was published in two volumes 1858. Obviously, the mastersand officers liked Maury's form of presentation. Theinformation he provided wasnece ary for finding a fast and safe way across the eas. In the introduction to thefir t edition of his "Physical Geography of the Sea", Maury stated: "The primaryobject of 'Wind and Current Charts,' out of which has grown this Treatise on thePhy ical Geography of the Sea, was to collect the experience of every navigator asto the wind and currents of lhe ocean, to discus his observations upon them, andthen to present thc world with the results on charts for the improvement of commerce and navigation." (Maury 1855: lll.) Furthermore, Maury outlined the background and results of the International Maritime Congress in Brussels 1853, whichhe had organized and at which he had presided. This was certainly the c ulminationof Maury's career. He records: "Therefore, all who use the sea were equally interesred in the undertaking. The govemment of the United States, so con idering thematter, proposed a uniform system of observations at sea, and invited all the maritime states of Christendom to a conference on the subject. [ . .] This conference,consi ting of representatives from France, England and Russia, from Sweden andNorway, Holland, Denmark, Belgium, Portugal, and the United States, met inBrussels, August 23, 1853, and recommended a plan of observation which houldbe followed on board the vessels of all friendfy nations, and especially of thoselhere present in the persons of their repre entatives. [. ] Prussia, Spain, the freecity of Hamburg, the republics of Bremen and Chi li , and lhe empires of Austriaand Brazil, have since offered their co-operation also in the ame plan" (Maury1855: XII-XIII). And Maury continued: "Thus the sea ha been brought regularlywithin the domains of philosophical research, and crowded wilh observers. [ . ]Baron Humboldt is of opinion that the results already obtai ned from this system ofresearch are sufficient to give ri e to a new department of science, which he hascalled the Physical Geography of the Sea." (Maury 1855: XIII.) We agree withFig. 4 (left): M aury· bathymetric chan of the North Atlantic Ocean (The Physical Geography of theSea, 8th edition, 1861, Schlee 1974: 46-47).

Humboldt and Maury - two pioneers of marine ciences169Leighly (1963) and Williams ( 1963) that the title of Maury' main book, which isba ed, in principle, on thc .,Explanations and Sailing Direction " (many parts areidentical), was suggestcd by Humboldt to Maury, probably during their meeting inBerlin. Maury First uscd this term in the 61h edition of his 1854 "Explanalions" asa heading for the section on the investigations of the Atlantic Ocean made underhis direction.Maury's work was rcprinted many times and appeared in everal foreigntranslations. Its obvious success, howcver, did not prevent scientbts from everel ycrilicising it. As one scholar noted, "In spite of its popularity the book had somcerious shortcomings. and these did not go unnoticed. What bothered scientistsabout Maury's work was the oversimplified and often Contradietory explanationwhich he insisted upon ad\ancing for allthe data that fell into Maury's hand l . ].While energy and ambition went a long way towards making up for hi Iack offormal education, thesc admirable qualities were not enough to initiate Maury intothe intricacies of geophysics and fluid dynamics. Yet these were thc areas whichfascinated him. and he formulated lheorie concerning the most complex y temsof the ea and supportcd h1s contentions with a few ob ervations. a vast number ofas umption , and quotat1ons from the Bible." (Schlee 1973: 58-59). lt may be truethat Maury had an "amatcurish approach to science", a tendency which infuriatedA. D. Bache, L. Agassi/, Joseph Henry and other contemporarics in the UnitedStates who were also intcrcsted in marine science. The German geographer Johann Georg Kohl , who had emigrated to the U.S. and was working for Bache during the years 1854 to 1857, compiled an account of the history of Gulf Stream reearch for the United Statcs Coast Survey, which he published in German after returning home (Kohl 1966). In hi book we find a more detailed discussion of thecompetition between thc various agencies in America and the difficultie Mauryhad to face a a result. lt should be mentioned that Kohl was one of the lirst cienti ts who began to appreciate Humboldt's contribution to oceanography; he knew,for instancc, that Humboldt was worki ng on a Iongertext about ocean current andthat he had prepared a chart of the North Atlantic (Kohl 1966: 125). Unfortunatelythis map is lost, but details may have found their way into the map of the AtJanticOcean that was included in Heinrich Berghau ' "Phy ikalischer Atlas," a workpublished to accompany Humboldt's "Cosmos" (Berghaus 2004: 32/33).Maury was a Southerner and had no New England acadcmic background.On Apri l 201h, 186 1 he chose to resign from the United States Navy and Ieave theNaval Observatory. He was commissioned in the Confederate State Navy andwent to England on a sccret mission to acquire vessels. Afte r the war, Maury'swind and current project was not continued, and he dccided to go to Mexico. Later,he went to England in onJer to promote a military torpedo project. In 1868, he accepted a chair at the Virginia Military Institute and Started to writc a popular manuaJ of geography for schools. In addition to these activities, he lectured on diverseFig. 5 (left): Secuon of ,.Karte vom Atlanti' Chen Ocean; 7Ur Uber.icht der Strömungen und Handelsstraßen, der Wänne-Verbreuung. des Seebodens etc." (From Berghau\ 2004: 32133).

170G. Korturn and I. Schwarzmauers in many citie . Matthew F. Maury died in Lexington, Virginia on February1st, I 873. In Septemberofthat year, his body was taken to its final resting place inRichmond. A monument to him was unveiled there in 1929 (the sculptor wa F.W. Sievers). ln 19 I 5 a hall had been dedicated to Maury at the United StateNaval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. Hi bust stands in The Hall of Farne forGreat Americans at New York University (see photos in William

Alexander von Humboldt and Matthew Fontaine Maury - two pioneers of marine sciences Gerhard Korturn and Ingo Schwarz I 157 The United States oceanographer Matthew Fontaine Maury (1806-1873) wa one of thc imponant correspondents of thc Prussian natumhst Alexander von Humboldt ( 1769-1859).